粉垄耕作对新疆盐碱土理化性质及棉花生长影响
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作者单位:

(新疆农业科学院综合试验场,新疆 乌鲁木齐 830012)

作者简介:

孙美乐(1983-),女,河南人,助理研究员,硕士,主要研究方向为作物栽培。E-mail:277261635@qq.com。通讯作者:杨净,E-mail:380589385@qq.com。

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基金项目:新疆农业科学院青年基金项目(xjnkq-2017020);乌鲁木齐市科技计划项目(Y141310014)。


Effects of smash-ridging cultivation on physical and chemical properties of saline-alkali soil and cotton growth in Xinjiang
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(XinjiangAcademy of Agricultural Sciences Comprehensive TestingGround,Urumqi Xinjiang830012)

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    摘要:

    为了明确粉垄耕作后结合大水漫灌洗盐措施对新疆盐碱土理化性质及棉花生长指标、产量的影响,探讨合理的耕作模式,对土壤设置间隔粉垄、连续粉垄两个耕作措施,以传统翻耕为对照,对播种前、苗期、收获期3个不同时期土壤的容重、含水量、总盐指标变化和棉花生长势及产量的差异进行分析。结果表明:与传统翻耕相比,粉垄耕作降低了不同时期土壤耕作层的容重,增加了土壤含水量,间隔粉垄和连续粉垄在 0~ 40 cm降低了土壤含盐量,达到显著水平( P<0.05),以 0~ 20 cm土层最为显著,分别比传统翻耕耕作层含盐量降低 37%、37.5%,显著提高了棉花的生长势及产量,分别较传统翻耕处理增产 46.2%和 49.5%。间隔粉垄与连续粉垄对土壤的理化指标及棉花长势、产量影响无显著差异,说明粉垄对土壤结构影响持久,综合研究本区的土壤、自然环境等因素,可采用粉垄 -传统翻耕 -粉垄耕作模式,改良土壤结构,降低耕作层土壤含盐量,节约成本,提高经济效益。

    Abstract:

    The effects of smash-ridging cultivation combined with flood irrigation and salt washing measures on the physicochemical properties of Xinjiang saline-alkalisoil,cotton growthindexes,yield were studied and the rational tillagemode wasdiscussed.Before planting,the soil was treated with twomethods:interval smash -ridging and continuous smash-ridging,and the conventionaltillage(plowing+rotary)was set ascontrol.The soil bulkdensity,watercontent,total saltindex before sowing and at the seedling stage and harvest time weredetermined,cotton plant growth and yield wereanalyzed.The results showed that compared with conventionaltillage,the two smash -ridging tillage reduced the bulk density of the soiltillage layer in different periods and increased the soil watercontent. The interval smash-ridging and continuous smash-ridgingreduced the soil salinity at 0~ 40 cmsignificantly( P<0.05),especially in the 0~ 20 cm soillayer,which reduced thesalt content of the cultivated layer by 37% and37.5%,respectively,and significantly increased the growth potential andyield ofcotton.Compared with conventional tillage treatment,the yield increased by 46.2% and49.5%,respectively. There was no significant difference in the soil physical and chemical indicators and the cotton growth and yield between the interval smash-ridging and continuous smash-ridgingcultivation,indicating that the effect of the smash -ridging cultivation on the soil structure is long-lasting.Based on the comprehensive research on the soil and environment in thisarea,smash -ridging tillage+rotary tillage+smash-ridging tillage mode can be used to improve soil structuie,reduce soil salinity in thetillagelayer,save costs and increase economic benefits.

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孙美乐,蔺国仓,回经涛,仙鹤,任向荣,张润龙,杨净.粉垄耕作对新疆盐碱土理化性质及棉花生长影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):58-64.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-11-12
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-12-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21