生物有机肥对红富士树体生长及土壤微生物群落结构的影响
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(山东省果树研究所,山东 泰安 271000)

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薛晓敏(1979-),女,河北邯郸人,副研究员,硕士,长期从事水果遗传育种与栽培研究。E-mail:xuexiaomin79@126.com。通讯作者:王金政,E-mail:wjz992001@163.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201100,2017YFD0701402);山东省重点研发计划(2017CXGC0210)。


Effects of biological organic fertilizer on growth and soil microbial community structure of red Fuji tree
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(Shandong Institute ofPomology,Taian Shandong271000)

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    摘要:

    以 7年生烟富 3苹果为试材,探讨了 45%有机肥和生物有机肥(葡萄籽肥和海藻肥)对果树生物量及土壤微生物环境的影响,为果树优质高效生产和减量施用化肥提供科学依据。试验共设置 3个处理:45 %有机肥 11 250 kg/hm2(E)、海藻有机肥 11 250 kg/hm2(F)、葡萄籽有机肥 4 500 kg/hm2(G),于果实成熟期采集土壤样品及果实,测定其生物量及果实品质等相关指标,应用高通量测序技术研究不同处理后不同土层微生物多样性的变化。与 45%有机肥处理对照相比较,生物有机肥处理后提高了树体的株高、冠径、产量和品质,海藻肥处理后树体叶丛枝和短果枝比例、平均单果质量以及果实品质均优于葡萄籽肥,外围新梢表现为葡萄籽肥最高。对于 0~ 20 cm土层,海藻肥处理后显著降低了土壤细菌 Simpson指数,提高了土壤细菌 Shannon指数,葡萄籽肥处理结果与此相反;海藻肥和葡萄籽肥处理均提高了土壤 0~ 20 cm土层真菌 Ace、Chao1和 Simpson指数,降低了 Shannon指数。对于 20~ 40 cm土层,海藻肥处理后降低了土壤细菌和真菌Ace、Chao1和 Shannon指数,显著提高了 Simpson指数,葡萄籽肥处理结果与此相反。海藻肥处理后提高了 0~ 20和 20~ 40 cm土层酸杆菌门(Acidobacteria)的相对丰度,降低了变形菌门(Proteobacteria)和拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)的相对丰度;葡萄籽肥处理后降低了 0~ 20和 20~ 40 cm土层酸杆菌门的相对丰度,提高了 0~ 20 cm土层变形菌门的相对丰度,降低了 20~ 40 cm土层变形菌门的相对丰度,降低了 0~ 20 cm土层拟杆菌门的相对丰度,提高了 20~ 40cm土层拟杆菌门的相对丰度。子囊菌门(Ascomycota)和接合菌门(Zygomycota)是土壤中含量最丰富的两大真菌,对 0~ 20 cm土层来说,海藻肥和葡萄籽肥处理均提高了子囊菌门的相对丰度,降低了接合菌门的相对丰度,对 20~ 40 cm土层来说,海藻肥和葡萄籽肥处理均提高了接合菌门的相对丰度,海藻肥处理提高了子囊菌门的相对丰度,较对照提高了 56.88%,葡萄籽肥处理降低了子囊菌门的相对丰度。土壤物种丰度聚类热图结果显示不同土层之间存在差异,葡萄籽肥处理与对照处理之间差异较大。葡萄籽肥和海藻肥处理均有助于红富士树体树高、干径、东西冠径以及外围新梢的增大,且枝类结构更为合理,不同生物有机肥处理后改变了土壤细菌和真菌的群落多样性及结构,土壤细菌多样性增加,真菌多样性降低,改善了土壤微生物环境,为生物有机肥的推广奠定了基础。

    Abstract:

    The effects of biological organicfertilizers(grape seed fertilizer and seaweedfertilizer)on fruit tree biomass and soil microbial environment were studied by using 7-year-old Yanfu 3 apple as test material and 45% organic fertilizer as control(CK),which provides the scientific basis for high quality and efficiency production of fruit trees and fertilizer reduction. Theexperiment consisted of threetreatments:45% organic fertilizer with an application rate of 11 250 kg/hm2(E),seaweed organic fertilizer with an application rate of 11 250 kg/hm2(F)and grape seed organic fertilizer with an application rate of 4 500 kg/hm2(G). Soil samples and fruit were collected at maturity. The biomass and fruit quality were measured,and the changes of soil microbial diversity after different soil treatments were studied by high throughput sequencing technique.Compared withCK,the plantheight,grounddiameter,yield and quality of the tree were improved after the treatment ofbiological organic fertilizer. The proportion of leafy and short fruitbranches,average single fruit quality and fruit qualityof seaweed fertilizer treatment were better than those of grape seed fertilizer treatment. However,the outer tips of branch slightly showed the highest with the grape seed fertilizer treatment. For 0~20 cm soillayer,the bacterial Simpson indexwas significantly decreased and the bacterial Shannon index was increased after seaweed fertilizertreatment,but the resultof grape seed fertilizer treatment was the opposite. The treatments of the seaweed fertilizer and the grape seed increased theAce,Chao1 and Simpson index of the soil 0~20cm,and the Shannon index was reduced. For 20~40 cm soillayer,seaweed fertilizer treatment decreased theAce,Chao1 and Shannon index of soil bacteria andfungi,and significantlyincreased the Simpsonindex,but the result of grape seed fertilizer treatment was the opposite. After seaweed fertilizertreatment,the relative abundance of Acidobacteria in 0~ 20 and 20~ 40 cm soil layer wasincreased,which decreasedthe relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. With grape seed fertilizer treatment,the relative abundance ofAcidobacteria in 0~ 20 and 20~ 40 cm soil layerdecreased,The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in 0~ 20 cm soillayer was improved,the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in 20~ 40 cm soil layer wasreduced,the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the 0~20 cm soil layer was reduced,and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in 20~ 40 cm soil layer was improved. Ascomyces and Zygomycota were the two most abundant fungi in soil. For 0~20 cm soil layer, both seaweed manure and grape seed fertilizer treatment increased the relative abundance of Ascomyces and decreased the relative abundance of Zygomycota. For 20~40 cm soillayer,both seaweed fertilizer and grape seed fertilizer treatmentincreased the relative abundance ofAscomyces,seaweed fertilizer treatment increased the relative abundance ofAscomyces, which was 56.88% higher than that of the control. And grape seed fertilizer treatment decreased the relative abundance of Ascomyces. The results of cluster heat map of soil species abundance showed that there were differences between different soil layers and between grape seed fertilizer treatment and control treatment. Grape seed fertilizer and seaweed fertilizer treatmentwere helpful to the increase ofheight,dry diameter,east -west crown diameter and peripheral fresh of red Fuji trees,and the branch structure was more reasonable. The community diversity and structure of soil bacteria and fungi were changed afterdifferent bioorganic fertilizertreatments,the diversity of soil bacteriaincreased,the diversity of fungidecreased,and themicrobial environment of soil was improved,which laid a foundation for the promotion of high quality and high yield and biological organic fertilizer.

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薛晓敏,韩雪平,陈汝,王来平,王金政.生物有机肥对红富士树体生长及土壤微生物群落结构的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):163-173.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-25
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  • 录用日期:2020-02-14
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21