我国大豆最佳施肥量和种植密度评价
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(1.农业农村部植物营养与肥料重点实验室,中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京 100081;2.北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所,北京 100097)

作者简介:

吕继龙(1993-),男,河南上蔡人,在读硕士,研究1 E-mail:17839964170@163.com。通讯作者:赵士诚,E-mail:zhaoshicheng@caas.cn。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0201001,2016YFD0200102)。


Assessment of the optimum fertilization rates and planting density for soybean production in China
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Affiliation:

(1.Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer,Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing100081;2.Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and ForestrySciences,Beijing100097)

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    摘要:

    施肥量和种植密度是影响大豆高产的重要因素。在收集了大量的大豆试验数据(1998~ 2017年)基础上,通过拟合氮、磷、钾肥用量和种植密度与产量之间的二次函数,得出最佳的施肥量和种植密度,通过逐步回归分析了施肥量和种植密度对大豆产量的影响。结果表明,我国春大豆和夏大豆的产量逐年增加,平均产量分别为 2 610和 2 724 kg/hm2。夏大豆最高产量下的氮、磷、钾肥用量分别为 N 96 kg/hm2、P2O5 80 kg/hm2和K2O 126 kg/hm2;春大豆最高产量下的氮、磷、钾肥用量分别为 N 71 kg/hm2、P2O5 108 kg/hm2和K2O 74 kg/hm2;实现夏、春大豆高产的最佳密度分别为 27万和 34万株/hm2。逐步回归分析显示,磷用量对春大豆产量影响最大,其次为钾肥和密度;在夏大豆产区,密度对产量影响最大,其次为磷肥用量。种植密度是大豆高产的关键因素,春、夏大豆需要提高种植密度获得高产,同时均应注重磷肥施用。

    Abstract:

    Fertilization rate and planting density are important factors affecting soybean yield.A large number of soybean [Glycine max(L.)Merr]field experimental data(1998~2017)werecollected,the rate of optimum nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P),potassium(K)fertilizers and planting density were analyzed based on fitting quadratic function.Theeffect of fertilizer rates and planting density on soybean yield were analyzed by stepwise regressionanalysis.Results showedthat the yield of spring and summer soybeans gradually increased overyear,with average yield of 2 610 and 2 724 kg/hm2,respectively.The optimum rate ofN,P and K fertilizers for the highest yield of summer soybean was N 96 kg/hm2,P2O5 80 kg/hm2 and K2O 126 kg/hm2,and the optimum rate ofN,P and K fertilizers for the highest yield of spring soybean was N 71 kg/hm2,P2O5 108 kg/hm2 and K2O 74 kg/hm2,respectively.The optimum planting density was 27×10 4 and 34×104 plants/ hm2under the highest yield for summer and spring soybeans,respectively.Stepwise regression analysis showed that the Pfertilizer had the greatest influence on the yield of spring soybean followed by K fertilizer and plantingdensity.For summersoybeancrop,planting density had the major effect on yield followed by Pfertilizer.Overall,the P fertilization and plantingdensity were critical for soybeanproduction,the planting density need be enhanced to attain high yield for spring and summersoybeans with enhancement in phosphorus fertilizer in bothseasons.

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吕继龙,何萍,徐新朋,魏丹,仇少君,赵士诚.我国大豆最佳施肥量和种植密度评价[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):174-180.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-23
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  • 录用日期:2019-12-27
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21