基于产量水平的内蒙古阴山地区马铃薯施肥评价
作者:
作者单位:

(1.内蒙古自治区土壤肥料学会,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;2.鄂尔多斯市土壤肥料和节水农业工作站,内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017010;3.内蒙古农业大学农学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010019;4.内蒙古自治区土壤肥料和节水农业工作站,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;5.内蒙古自治区农牧业科学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010031;6.锡林郭勒盟土壤肥料工作站,内蒙古 锡林浩特 026000)

作者简介:

李瑞(1983-),女,内蒙古鄂尔多斯市人,高级农艺师,博士,主要从事土壤与肥料方面的研究工作。E-mail: lirui01@163.com。通讯作者:郑海春,E-mail: haichunzheng@126.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:内蒙古减肥增效项目;内蒙古耕地质量评价项目;内蒙古耕地质量保护与提升项目。


Evaluation of potato fertilization based on yield level in Yinshan region of Inner Mongolia
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Affiliation:

(1.Inner Mongolia Soil and FertilizerSociety,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010011;2.Ordos Soil and Fertilizer WorkStation,Ordos Inner Mongolia017010;3.College of Agronomy,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010019;4.Inner Mongolia Soil and Fertilizer WorkStation,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010011;5.Inner Mongolia Academyof Agricultural and Animal Husbandy Sciences,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010031;6.Xilingol League Soil and Fertilizer WorkStation,Xilinhot Inner Mongolia026000)

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    摘要:

    明确内蒙古阴山地区马铃薯施肥现状,为实现内蒙古马铃薯的稳产增产和养分高效利用提供理论依据。对内蒙古阴山地区连续 5年的调查数据进行分析,基于马铃薯产量确定合理施肥量,对农户实际施肥量进行评价,分析农户施肥存在的问题。旱地马铃薯平均产量 16.6 t/hm2,水浇地马铃薯平均产量 35.9 t/hm2,水浇地马铃薯产量明显高于旱地马铃薯。旱地马铃薯施氮量介于 0~ 363 kg/hm2,平均 103.6 kg/hm2;施磷量介于 0~ 354 kg/hm2,平均 75.9 kg/hm2;施钾量介于 0~ 330 kg/hm2,平均 46.0 kg/hm2。水浇地马铃薯施氮量介于 45~ 471 kg/hm2,平均 224.5 kg/hm2;施磷量介于 0~ 393 kg/hm2,平均 172.4 kg/hm2;施钾量介于 0~ 414 kg/hm2,平均 167.7 kg/hm2。马铃薯的产量和施肥量变异均很大,且氮、磷和钾用量与马铃薯产量不同步。不管是旱地马铃薯,还是水浇地马铃薯,当产量水平由低到高,施氮过量的农户总的趋势是降低的,施氮量适中的农户比例逐渐增加,施氮不足的农户比例逐渐增多;施磷量分布趋势与不同产量水平施氮量分布类似;农户施钾不平衡主要表现为施钾不足。内蒙古阴山地区有 71.6%的农户不施有机肥,且有机肥施用量很低,平均 7.1 t/hm2。内蒙古阴山地区马铃薯养分管理存在的主要问题是化肥施用过量和不足并存,有机肥施用量偏低。

    Abstract:

    The current situation of potato fertilization in Yinshan region of Inner Mongolia was clarified to provide theoreticalbasis for realizing stable yield and yield increase of potatoes and efficient utilization of nutrients in Inner Mongolia.Basedon the analysis of the survey data of five consecutive years inYinshan,InnerMongolia,the recommended fertilization ratewas determined based on the potatoyield,the fertilizer applied by farmers wasevaluated,and the problems of farmers’fertilizer application wereanalyzed.The average yield of dryland potatoes was 16.6 t/hm2,and the average yield of irrigated potatoes was 35.9 t/hm2.The yield of irrigated potatoes was significantly higher than that of drylandpotatoes.The nitrogen application of dryland potatoes ranged from 0 to 363 kg/hm2,with an average of 103.6 kg/hm2;Phosphorus application amount ranged from 0 to 354 kg/hm2,with an average of 75.9 kg/hm2;Potassium application ranged from 0 to 330 kg/hm2, with an average of 46.0 kg/hm2.The nitrogen application amount of potatoes in irrigated land was between 45~ 471 kg/hm2, with an average of 224.5 kg/hm2;Phosphorus application amount ranged from 0 to 393 kg/hm2,with an average of 172.4 kg/hm2; Potassium application ranged from 0 to 414 kg/hm2,with an average of 167.7 kg/hm2.The yield and fertilizer application ofpotatoes variedgreatly,and there was no significant correlation between the amount ofnitrogen,phosphorus,potassium andthe yield of potatoes.Whether the potato in dryland or irrigatedland,when the yield level changes from low tohigh,thegeneral trend of farmers with excessive nitrogen application wasdecreased,the proportion of farmers with moderate nitrogenapplication was gradually increased,while the proportion of farmers with insufficient nitrogen application was graduallyincreased.The distribution trend of phosphorus application was similar to that of nitrogen application at different yieldlevels.The unreasonable potassium application of farmers was mainly manifested as inadequate potassiumapplication.In theYinshan region of InnerMongolia,71.6% of the farmers do not apply organicmanure,and the application amount of organicmanure is verylow,with an average of 7.1 t/hm2.The main problems of potato nutrient management in Yinshan region of Inner Mongolia are the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of chemical fertilizer and low application of organicfertilizer.

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李瑞,樊明寿,郑海春,郜翻身,高娃,王伟妮,赵晓梅.基于产量水平的内蒙古阴山地区马铃薯施肥评价[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):181-188.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-11-05
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  • 录用日期:2020-01-11
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21