黑龙江大豆-玉米轮作体系氮磷调控的产量效应与养分平衡
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(黑龙江八一农垦大学农学院,黑龙江 大庆 163319)

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张阳(1994-),男,河南许昌人,硕士研究生,主要从事大豆高产生理生态研究。E-mail:zy1994611@163.com。

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基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31801303);黑龙江省农垦总局重点科研计划项目(HKKY190206-01和HNK135-02-10-2);黑龙江八一农垦大学博士科研启动基金(XYB2014-04);黑龙江省自然基金面上项目(C2016042);中国博士后科学基金(2016M591568);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-04-PS17)。


The yield response to N and P regulation and nutrient balance under soybean-maize rotation system
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(College of Agronomy,Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University,Daqing Heilongjiang 163319)

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    摘要:

    为探究适宜于黑龙江垦区大豆-玉米轮作体系下最优的施肥模式,在黑龙江省九三管局鹤山农场科技园区进行田间定位试验,以大豆-玉米轮作体系作为研究对象,为保证一个轮作周期施肥总量不变,于大豆茬口实施减氮增磷方案,玉米茬口实施增氮减磷方案,来研究不同氮磷调控处理对大豆-玉米轮作体系作物生长、养分累积量、土壤收支平衡及经济效益的影响。结果表明,与常规施肥相比,大豆茬口减施1/2氮肥、增施1/2玉米磷肥(S2)和玉米茬口增施1/2大豆氮肥、减施1/2磷肥(M2)能够促进生育后期大豆和玉米植株对养分的吸收,提高干物质量的积累,增加大豆和玉米产量,增产幅度分别达5.9%和11.2%。大豆-玉米轮作体系各氮磷调控处理的土壤氮、磷、钾素收支平衡均为盈余,且均以S2-M2调控处理最低,分别为3.44%、62.69%、0.21%。该调控模式土壤氮、钾素收支基本平衡,磷素仍有盈余。大豆-玉米轮作周年经济效益也以S2-M2处理的利润最高,达25351元/hm2。综合结果表明,在轮作周期施肥总量不变的条件下,大豆-玉米轮作体系下大豆茬口实施S2和玉米茬口实施M2的调控处理可促进大豆和玉米对养分的吸收,增加干物质积累量,降低养分残留的不利影响,从而达到增产和增效的目的。

    Abstract:

    In order to explore optimal fertilizer management mode under soybean-maize rotation in Heilongjiang reclamation region,field positioning experiment was carried out in Heshan farm science and technological park of Jiusan administration bureau of Heilongjiang province,soybean-maize rotation was taken as the object and the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer was ensured the same during rotation period.The field experience was conducted to reduce nitrogen and increase phosphorus in soybean season,increase nitrogen and reduce phosphorus in maize season,and the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus control treatments on plant growth,nutrient accumulation,soil balance and economic benefit of soybean-maize rotation were studied.The results showed that compared with conventional fertilization,the application of reducing 1/2 nitrogen of soybean and increasing 1/2 phosphorus of maize in soybean season(S2)and the application of increasing 1/2 nitrogen of soybean and reducing 1/2 phosphorus of maize in maize season(M2)promoted the nutrient uptake of soybean and maize plants in latter period and the dry matter accumulation.The yields of soybean and maize increased by 5.9% and 11.2%,respectively.In soybean-maize rotation,the balance of N,P and K of all nitrogen and phosphorus regulation treatments were surplus,and the lowest treatment of S2-M2 were 3.44%,62.69%,0.21%,respectively.Soil nitrogen and potassium balance of S2-M2 treatment were basically balanced,but phosphorus still had surplus.The maximum annual economic benefit of soybean-maize rotation was also obtained by S2-M2 treatment,which was 25351 yuan/hm2.The above results showed that the application of S2 and the application of M2 can promote the absorption of nutrients by soybean and maize plants,increase dry matter accumlation,decrease the adverse effects of nutrient residues,thereby achieving the purpose of increasing yield and increasing efficiency.

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张阳,张春宇,张明聪,金喜军,王孟雪,张玉先.黑龙江大豆-玉米轮作体系氮磷调控的产量效应与养分平衡[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):44-52.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-11-19
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  • 录用日期:2020-01-06
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18