施用启动肥对土壤特性、玉米生长及产量的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.石河子大学农学院农业资源与环境系,新疆 石河子 832003;2.新疆生长建设兵团第九师农业科学研究所,新疆 塔城 834600)

作者简介:

吕小凡(1992-),女,甘肃定西人,硕士,研究方向为新型肥料与现代施肥技术。E-mail:2802944596@qq.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201808);新疆兵团区域创新引导计划(2018BB020)。


Effect of starter fertilizer on yield,growth and soil characteristics of maize
Author:
Affiliation:

(1.Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment,College of Agriculture,Shihezi University,Shihezi Xinjiang 832003;2.Institute of Agricultural Sciences,Ninth Division,Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps,Tacheng Xinjiang 834600)

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    摘要:

    研究了滴灌条件下施用启动肥对石灰性土壤特性和玉米产量的影响。供试玉米品种为新玉109号,在全生育期等磷量下,设置了启动肥不同用量[0 kg·hm-2(CF,对照)、45 kg·hm-2(SF3.0)、90 kg·hm-2(SF6.0)、135 kg·hm-2(SF9.0)]的田间试验,研究启动肥施用量对土壤特性、玉米产量及经济效益的影响,确定合理的启动肥施用量。结果表明:(1)启动肥施用3 d后在距滴头5 cm处0~10 cm土层中土壤有效磷平均增加了9.20 mg·kg-1,土壤有效锌平均增加了0.28 mg·kg-1。(2)施用启动肥能够促进玉米根系生长,显著提高玉米侧根数、平均直径、总表面积及总体积。(3)与对照相比,启动肥对玉米增产显著,施启动肥处理玉米产量最高为22731.9 kg·hm-2,增产率15.99%,收益从15474.9元·hm-2增长至20028.3元·hm-2,SF3.0、SF6.0和SF9.0处理较CF处理收益分别增加了4.1%、29.4%和9.4%,产投比从2.19提高到了2.54。综合产量和经济效益分析得出SF6.0处理效果最好,即启动肥中的P2O5合理施用量在35 kg·hm-2较为适宜。

    Abstract:

    This paper studied effects of start fertilizer on drip irrigated maize growth,yield and soil characteristic in calcareous soil.The maize varieties is ‘Xin yu 109’(Zea Mays L. Xinyu 109),four starter fertilizer levels[0 kg·hm-2(CF),45 kg·hm-2(SF3.0),90 kg·hm-2(SF6.0),135 kg·hm-2(SF9.0)]were conducted in a field experiment but keep total P application identical in the whole growth stage of maize,aimed to analyze the effects of application amount of start fertilizer on soil fertility,yield and economic benefits of maize,the reasonable application amount of start fertilizer was determined. The results showed that:(1)After three days of starter fertilizer application,the available P increased by 9.20 mg·kg-1 on average,and the available Zn increased by 0.28 mg·kg-1 on average in 0~10 cm soil layer and 5 cm away from the dripper.(2)Application of start fertilizer promoted the growth of maize root system,significantly improved the number of maize node roots,average diameter of root,and total surface area,total volume of root.(3)Compared with CF,the starter fertilizer increased the yield of maize significantly,the highest maize yield of the starter fertilizer treatment was 22731.9 kg·hm-2,and the yield increase rate was 15.99%.The net income increased from 15474.9 yuan·hm-2 to 20028.3 yuan·hm-2. The income of SF3.0,SF6.0 and SF9.0 increased by 4.1%,29.4% and 9.4% respectively,and the out/input ratio increased from 2.19 to 2.54. SF6.0 showed best performance in yield and profit in all the four treatments. The reasonable application amount of starter P2O5 is 35 kg·hm-2.

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吕小凡,赵海蓓,白如霄,张新疆,刘玲慧,危常州.施用启动肥对土壤特性、玉米生长及产量的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):240-246.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-03-27
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18