木芙蓉营养生长旺期主要矿质元素的吸收与分布特征
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作者单位:

(1.成都市植物园 成都市公园城市植物科学研究院 ,四川 成都 610083;2.四川省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所,四川 成都 610066)

作者简介:

李方文(1968-),男,重庆市合川区人,高级工程师,学士,主要研究植物引种驯化及繁育。E-mail:449692182@

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基金项目:

基金项目:四川省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所与成都市植物园合作研发项目“盆栽芙蓉营养优化基质配方及专用肥料研发”。


Absorption and distribution of several mineral elements in Hibiscus mutabilis plants at vegetative growth phase
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Affiliation:

(1.Chengdu Botanical Garden Chengdu Institute of Park City Plant Research ,Chengdu Sichuan 610083;2.Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute,Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Chengdu Sichuan 610066)

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    摘要:

    木芙蓉是一种观赏和药用价值较高的多年生木本花卉。在大田条件下,研究营养生长旺期木芙蓉主要矿质元素的含量与分布特征,可为其科学施肥提供技术支撑。以营养生长旺期的两个木芙蓉品种(早花品种“牡丹红”和晚花品种“醉芙蓉”)为研究对象,称量根、茎、叶等器官的生物量,测定其中氮、磷、钾、钙、镁、铁、锰、锌元素含量。结果表明:(1)在营养生长旺期,“牡丹红”和“醉芙蓉”整株生物量无差异,但前者茎的比重大于后者,后者根的比重大于前者。(2)磷在木芙蓉不同器官含量无差异,叶片中其他矿质元素含量显著高于茎和根;对于相同器官,早花品种叶片中钙的含量低于晚花品种,其余元素含量无差异。(3)木芙蓉不同器官的养分吸收累积量与含量类似,除磷、钾、镁、铁以外,其余元素在叶中积累量高于根和茎;早花品种整株氮、钙和铁的积累量低于晚花品种。(4)早花品种氮、磷、钾、钙、镁、铁、锰、锌养分累积量分别为4.34、0.87、4.99、3.12、1.44、0.15 g·株–1和8.50、5.86 mg·株–1,晚花品种累积量分别为5.92、1.11、5.71、4.35、1.74、0.22 g·株–1和12.52、7.52 mg·株–1。因此,木芙蓉生长阶段不仅需要施用氮、磷、钾大量元素,还要注意中微量元素的补充。种植年限相同的晚花品种施肥量稍高于早花品种,但不同养分施用比例的规律类似,营养生长旺期两者氮、磷、钾、钙、镁、铁、锰、锌养分吸收比例平均为1∶0.20∶1.06∶0.73∶0.31∶0.04∶(2.04×10–3)∶(1.31×10–3)。然而,木芙蓉整个生育期肥料施用数量和时期有待进一步研究。

    Abstract:

    Hibiscus mutabilis L.is one woody perennial plant with high ornamental value and medicine value.Under field conditions,we studied the absorption and distribution of several mineral elements in Hibiscus mutabilis at vegetative growth phase,which could give some suggestions to its fertilization.Two varieties of Hibiscus mutabilis,including Mudanhong,one early blooming-seasoned variety and Zuifurong,one late blooming-seasoned variety,were sampled at late phase of vegetative growth.The root,stem,and leaves were weighed,and the concentration of N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Zn were determined.The results showed that:(1)During the vegetative growth period,there was no significant difference in the whole plant biomass between Mudanhong and Zuifurong.Compared to Zuifurong,the ratio of stem to the whole plant was higher in Mudanhong,with lower ratio of root to the whole plant.(2)Except P,other nutrition elements were higher in leaves than in stem and root for both varieties.For the same organ,the content of Ca in leaves of Mudanhong is lower than that of zuifurong,and the content of other elements is not different.(3)Accumulative absorption of nutrients in Hibiscus mutabilis demonstrated similar tendency as the concentration.The accumulative absorption of N,Ca,Mn,and Zn were higher in leaves than other organs for both varieties.Meanwhile,lower N,Ca,and Fe were absorbed in Mudanhong plant than those in Zuifurong.(4)The accumulative absorption of N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,and Zn in Mudanhong plant was 4.34,0.87,4.99,3.12,1.44,0.15 g·plant-1,and 8.50,5.86 mg·plant-1 respectively,while those in Zuifurong plant was 5.92,1.11,5.71,4.35,1.74,0.22 g·plant-1,and 12.52,7.52 mg·plant-1,respectively.Not only N,P,and K nutrients,but also secondary and micro elements were required during Hibiscus mutabilis growth.Compared early blooming-seasoned variety,higher amounts of fertilizer were applied to the late blooming-seasoned variety.However,the two varieties had similar ratio of different nutrients during vegetative growth phase,namely,the N∶P∶K∶Ca∶Mg∶Fe∶Mn∶Zn ratio was 1∶0.20∶1.06∶0.73∶0.31∶0.04∶(2.04×10–3)∶(1.31×10–3).However,the number and period of fertilizer application during the whole growth period of Hibiscus mutabilis L. needs further study.

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李方文,周子军,刘晓莉,秦鱼生,曾心美,石小庆,杨苑钊.木芙蓉营养生长旺期主要矿质元素的吸收与分布特征[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):256-261.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-18
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-02-29
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18