基于养分平衡的顺义区蔬菜产业有机肥替代化肥潜力估算
作者:
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(1.北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所,北京 100097;2.北京市顺义区种植业服务中心,北京 101300;3.北京市缓控释肥料工程技术研究中心,北京 100097)

作者简介:

李艳梅(1983-),女,陕西志丹人,副研究员,博士,主要从事农林废弃物资源化与作物水肥高效利用研究。E-mail:liyanmei0101@163.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:北京市农林科学院科技创新能力建设专项(KJCX20180708);北京市粮经作物产业创新团队(BAIC09-2019);北京市农林科学院院青年基金(QNJJ202134);国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0201010;2017YFD0800405)。


The replacement potential of organic fertilizer to chemical fertilizer for vegetable industry in Shunyi district based on nutrient balance algorithm
Author:
Affiliation:

(1.Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resource,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science,Beijing 100097;2.Planting Service Center,Shunyi District,Beijing 101300;3.Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center for Slow/Controlled-release Fertilizer,Beijing 100097)

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    摘要:

    2018 年 8 月~ 2019 年 6 月,调研了顺义区 31 个典型设施蔬菜生产经营主体的生产及施肥现状及该区畜禽养殖粪源年产出情况,并借助估算模型,分析了该区蔬菜产业有机肥替代化肥的潜力。结果表明,该区设施蔬菜以果菜、叶菜和瓜菜为主,排名前 10 位的蔬菜按照种植面积由大至小排序依次为:番茄、西瓜、生菜、白菜、茄子、辣椒、芹菜、甘蓝、莴苣和菠菜,10 种蔬菜的种植总面积占全区各类蔬菜种植总面积的比例高达84%。茄果类主要与叶菜、瓜菜、快菜和玉米换茬,西瓜主要与叶菜、茄果换茬,叶菜主要与茄果、根菜、瓜菜、葱蒜换茬,也存在茄果及叶菜内部不同类型间的换茬。茄果、西瓜和叶菜都存在连茬种植问题。茄果、西瓜和叶菜种植一茬平均时长分别约 120、100 和 60 d。设施蔬菜化肥和有机肥投入量均值分别约 850 kg/hm2 和28 t/hm2。结合文献调研结果认为,配施半量化肥基础上的有机肥投入量,西甜瓜应适度上调,果菜应避免过高或过低,叶菜可考虑减半。基于蔬菜种植和施肥数据,计算的化肥源氮、磷、钾纯养分的年投入量分别为 2107、1870 和 2344 t,有机肥源氮、磷、钾养分的年投入量分别为 979、522 和 1246 t,有机无机肥源氮、磷、钾纯养分的年投入总量分别为 3086、2392 和 3590 t。根据 2018 年全区畜禽存栏数据及日产粪尿量估值,计算得到的畜禽粪尿年产出量呈猪场 > 牛场 > 羊场 > 鸡场 > 鸭场的趋势,以猪场最多,牛场次之。猪粪尿、牛粪尿可替代化肥总量分别占畜禽粪尿可替代总潜力的 63.4% 和 27.3%。考虑到羊粪尿和鸡鸭粪尿年产出量低及收集难度大的问题,笔者以猪牛粪尿估算了该区蔬菜产业有机肥替代化肥的潜力。计算表明,猪牛粪尿可替代氮、磷、钾纯养分的量分别为 4477、2371 和 5883 t,可替代区蔬菜产业有机无机肥源氮磷钾纯养分年投入总量的比例分别达145%、99.1% 和 164%。动物粪尿养分资源转化为有机肥替代传统化肥应用于蔬菜生产,在该区具有较好的种养结合前景。

    Abstract:

    The production and fertilization status of 31 typical greenhouse vegetable bases,and the annual livestock and poultry manure output of Shunyi district,were investigated from August 2018 to June 2019.With the aid of an estimation model,the potential of organic fertilizer to replace chemical fertilizer in the vegetable industry in this area was analyzed. Results showed that the vegetables in the area were mainly sorted to fruit,leafy and melon type.The top 10 vegetables according to the planting area were as follows:tomato,watermelon,lettuce,Chinese cabbage,eggplant,pepper,celery,cabbage,lettuce and spinach.The total planting area of these 10 kinds of vegetables accounted for 84% of the total area of vegetable cultivated in the region.The solanaceous vegetables were mainly rotated with leafy vegetables,melons,lumps,and corn.The watermelons were mainly rotated with leafy and solanaceous vegetables.The leafy vegetables were mainly rotated with solanaceous,root vegetables,melons,onions and garlic.There were also rotations between leafy and fruit interiors.Solanum,watermelon and leafy vegetables all had flail cultivation problems.The average planting length of solanaceous,watermelon and leafy vegetables were about 120,100 and 60 d,respectively.The average inorganic and organic fertilizer inputs under greenhouse vegetable production were 850 kg/hm2 and 28 t/hm2,respectively. According to the literature research results,when applied with half quantity of inorganic fertilizer,the quantity of organic fertilizer for melon and watermelon should be moderately increased,that for fruit vegetables should be avoided too high or too low,and that for leafy vegetables should be halved.Based on the vegetable planting and fertilization data,the calculated annual pure nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium inputs from chemical sources were 2107,1870 and 2344 t,respectively;that from organic sources were 979,522 and 1246 t,respectively;and that from the both two sources were 3086,2392 and 3590 t respectively.According to the livestock and poultry stocks data and the daily manure and urine output data in the whole region in 2018,the annual livestock and poultry manure output were calculated and followed the trend of:pig farm>cattle farm>sheep farm>chicken farm>duck farm,the pig farm achieved the first,and the cattle farm achieved the second.The total nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium nutrient replacement potential from pig farm and cattle farm were 63.4% and 27.3%,respectively.Taking into account the low annual excrement output and collection difficulty from sheep,chicken and duck sources,only the nutrient replacement potential from pig farm and cattle farm were calculated.Results indicated that the annual excrement from both pig and cattle farm in the district could be equivalent to 4477 tons of pure N,2371 tons of pure P2O5,and 5883 tons of pure K2O,the nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium replacement potential to local vegetable needs were reached to as high as 145%,99.1% and 164%,respectively.Converting animal manure and urine nutrient resource into organic fertilizer,and using it to substitute traditional chemical fertilizer in vegetable production has good planting-breeding standing condition in the studying district.

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李艳梅,徐茂,邹国元,孙焱鑫,廖上强.基于养分平衡的顺义区蔬菜产业有机肥替代化肥潜力估算[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):319-326.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25
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  • 录用日期:2020-03-27
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18