施肥方式和氮肥运筹对寒地水稻产量与品质的影响
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(1.黑龙江八一农垦大学农学院/黑龙江省教育厅寒地作物遗传育种与栽培重点实验室,黑龙江大庆 163319;2.黑龙江省大庆市萨尔图区农业局,黑龙江 大庆 163319)

作者简介:

赵海成(1992-),男,黑龙江方正人,在读硕士研究生,主要从事水稻高产优质栽培研究。E-mail:1320549249@qq.com。

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基金项目:国家科技支撑计划(2015BAD23B05-08);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0300104,2016YFD0300104,2016YFD0300504,


Effects of fertilization method and nitrogen fertilizer operation on the yield and quality of rice in cold field
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(1.Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics,Breeding and Cultivation,Heilongjiang Province Department of Education,Daqing 163319;2.Agricultural Bureau of Saltu District Daqing City Heilongjiang Province,Daqing Heilongjiang 163319)

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    摘要:

    针对目前黑龙江地区水稻高产优质栽培中存在施肥量偏高,偏施氮肥,且惯于表施和全层施肥,肥料的淋溶、挥发及排水损失较多等现状,提出一种寒地水稻点状施肥方式,比较了点状施肥、全层施肥和侧深施肥的产量、品质差异及其与氮肥运筹的互作效应,为寒地水稻合理施肥提供理论依据。采用盒栽试验,以垦粳8为材料,常规施氮条件下,设置施肥方式3水平(A1全层施肥,A2侧深施肥,A3点状施肥),氮肥运筹2水平(B1基蘖同施,B2基蘖分施),分析干物质积累量、叶片SPAD值、产量及其构成以及稻米主要品质性状。施肥方式下A3产量显著高于A1,增产8.13%;氮肥运筹下B1产量极显著高于B2,增产9.56%。A3和A2分蘖始期、最高分蘖期叶片SPAD值,分蘖期叶面积,齐穗期高效叶面积、总叶面积极显著高于A1,增幅分别为3.88%~7.80%、3.54%~4.35%,15.85%~31.07%,7.87%~13.24%、8.09%~13.47%;A2成熟期地上部干物质积累量显著高于A1,增幅为6.39%;氮肥运筹下B1齐穗期高效叶面积、总叶面积显著或极显著高于B2,增幅分别为6.57%~6.71%,分蘖期、齐穗期、成熟期地上部干物质积累量B1极显著高于B2,增幅分别为10.13%、10.52%、8.51%。A3蛋白质含量最低,其食味值最佳,但加工、外观品质变劣;氮肥运筹下香气、光泽、味道、口感及食味值B1极显著高于B2,增幅分别为0.81%、3.46%、1.61%、3.21%、1.65%。施肥方式和氮肥运筹二因素互作的蛋白质含量效应分析以侧深施肥、基蘖同施处理最低。施肥方式和氮肥运筹下对寒地水稻产量、品质的效应分析,侧深施肥和点状施肥产量均优于全层施肥,氮肥运筹下基蘖同施优于基蘖分施,其中以侧深施肥、基蘖同施处理可获得相对优质的最高产量。

    Abstract:

    Aiming at the present problems such as excessive total fertilization,high nitrogen application,low efficiency etc.in the high yield and quality rice cultivation of Heilongjiang area,this paper explores the interaction effect of nitrogen fertilizer operation on the yield and quality of rice under the whole layer fertilization,lateral deep fertilization and point fertilization.It provides a theoretical basis for rational nitrogen application in cold rice.Using box-planting culture test,with kenting 8 as the material,3 levels of fertilization (A1:whole layer fertilization,A2:lateral deep fertilization,A3:point fertilization),and 2 levels of nitrogen fertilizer operation (B1:base tiller co-application,B2:base tiller division) were set up,the dry matter accumulation,spad value,yield and its composition,as well as the main quality traits of rice were analyzed.The result showed that the rice yield of A3 was significantly higher than that of A1,and the rice yield of B1 was significantly higher than that of B2 and increased by 9.56%.The SPAD value of A3,A2 at tiller beginning and maximum tilleing stage,and the leaf area at tillering stage,high efficiency leaf area at full heading stage and the total leaf surface were positive significantly higher than those of A1,the increase was 3.88%~7.80%,3.54%~4.35%;15.85%~31.07%,7.87%~13.24% and 8.09 %~13.47%,respectively.The accumulation of dry matter in the upper stage of A2 was significantly higher than that of A1,and the increase was 6.39%.The high efficiency leaf area,total leaf area of B1 was significantly higher than that of B2 under nitrogen fertilizer operation,the increase was 6.57%~6.71%.The accumulation of dry matter in tiller stage,panicle stage and mature stage was significantly higher than those of B2,and the increase was 10.13%,10.52% and 8.51%,respectively.The protein content of A3 was lowst,and then improved the taste quality,but processing,appearance quality deterioration,nitrogen fertilizer operation aroma,luster,taste,and taste value of B1 were significantly higher than B2,and the increase was 0.81%,3.46%,1.61%,3.21%,1.65%,respectively.The A2B1 was the optimal treatment considering both fertilization method and nitrogen fertilizer operation.The yield of lateral deep fertilization and point-like fertilization was better than that of whole layer fertilization,and the base tiller was better than the base tiller in nitrogen fertilizer operation,among which nitrogen fertilizer could obtain the highest yield of relatively high quality by lateral deep fertilization.

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赵海成,杜春影,魏媛媛,陈立强,赫臣,王文玉,芦佳浩,李红宇,吕艳东,郑桂萍.施肥方式和氮肥运筹对寒地水稻产量与品质的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2019,(3):76-86.

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  • 收稿日期:2018-11-09
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  • 录用日期:2019-01-16
  • 在线发布日期: 2019-06-26