长期覆沙果园土壤温湿度和矿质养分年际变化特征
作者:
作者单位:

(1.甘肃省农业科学院林果花卉研究所,甘肃 兰州 730070;2.静宁县果树研究所,甘肃 静宁 743400)

作者简介:

刘小勇(1966-),男,陕西蓝田人,研究员,硕士,主要从事果树营养和生理生态研究工作。E-mail:liuxy6607@163.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31560540,31760555);甘肃省现代农业产业技术体系水果体系,农业部西北地区果树科学观测实验站(S-10-18)。


The annual changes regularity of soil mineral nutrients,temperature and water contents in apple orchards with long-term sand-covered
Author:
Affiliation:

(1.Institute of Fruit and FloricultureResearch,Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Lanzhou Gansu730070;2.Jingning County Fruit TreeInstitute,Jingning Gansu743400)

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    摘要:

    基于连续 3年对覆沙 20年苹果园土壤温湿度的定点监测,研究分析了长期覆沙条件下土壤温湿度和矿质养分的变化特征。结果表明:(1)在苹果年生育周期,覆沙提高了苹果园土壤温度、降低了冻土深度、缩短了0℃以下低温持续时间。覆沙园 0~ 80 cm土壤年平均温度比清耕园增高 0.8℃,20和 40 cm土壤0℃以下温度持续日数分别比清耕园缩短 14.5和 9.5 d。覆沙园苹果花期日平均土壤温度比清耕园高 1.6℃,有利于苹果根系的生长发育,提高早春抗寒能力。覆沙园不同土层全年土壤温度峰值均出现在 7月,其 40 cm土壤增温效果最明显,比清耕园高 1.2℃。果园覆沙降低了土壤温度振幅和日变幅,其变异系数也随土壤深度增加而降低。(2)苹果园土壤含水量变化总体呈缓慢升高再降低的趋势。覆沙明显提高了果园土壤含水量,特别是休眠期含水量,全年比清耕园高 3.0%,其中休眠期高 5.0%。覆沙果园土壤含水量峰值比清耕园提前,至 6月份达到最高,有利于缓解北方地区果园初夏旱情。覆沙明显保持和改善了深层土壤水分的稳定供给,降低了土壤含水量变幅,全年 60 cm土壤平均含水量稳定保持在 20.4%~22.4%、80 cm在 19.5%~ 22.1%之间,分别比清耕园高 5.0%和6.1%,但覆沙园 40 cm土壤平均含水量最低,为 16.8 %,比清耕园低 0.5%。(3)长期覆沙苹果园土壤养分含量随土壤深度增加呈降低趋势。覆沙园 60~ 80 cm土壤全氮、0~ 20 cm土壤铵态氮和有效磷含量显著高于清耕园,而 0~ 20 cm土壤速效钾低于清耕园。覆沙苹果园土壤硝态氮呈显著的深层积累特性,而铵态氮含量随土壤深度增加显著降低,其 0~ 80 cm硝态氮平均含量低于清耕园。长期覆沙增加了表层土壤容重,降低了土壤孔隙度。旱塬区苹果园覆沙明显改善了果树根域土壤环境,有利于提高果园水肥利用效率、改善果实品质、增加收益。

    Abstract:

    Based on the monitoring data of soil temperature and humidity in apple orchard which was a 20-year old with sandcovering,variation of soil temperature,moisture,mineral nutrients and compatness were analyzed in the past threeyears.The result showedthat:(1)Sand covering increased soiltemperature,decreased frozen soil depth and shortened durationof low temperature below 0℃.Compared withtillage,annual mean temperature in 0~ 80 cm soils layer with sandcovering increased by0.8℃,duration of temperature below 0℃ in 20 and 40 cm soil layer was shortened by 14.5 days and 9.5days,respectively.At bloomperiod,mean daily soil temperature of sand covering showed an increase of 1.6℃ thantillage,which was conducive to growth and development of apple root and cold resistance ability in earlyspring.The annualpeak soil temperature of different soil layers with sand covering was inJuly,and temperature increasing effect of 40 cm soillayer was the most obvious and it was 1.2℃ higher than that of tillagetreatment.Soil temperature amplitude and the dailychange were decreased with sand covering,and its variation coefficients also reduced with the increased of soil depth.(2)Ingenerally,the soil water content in apple orchard increased and thendeclined.The soil water content increasedsignificantly by sandcovering,which was 3.0% higher than tillage in annual and was 5.0% higher than tillage in dormancyperiod.The peak water content of sand covering was in June,and it was earlier thantillage,which was conducive toalleviating the drought in early summer in the NorthernChina.Sand covering significantly maintained and improved watersupply for deep soillayers,and reduced variation of soilmoisture.Throughout theyear,sand covering kept mean water content of 60 cm and 80 cm soil layer at 20.4%~ 22.4% and 19.5%~22.1%,which were 5.0% and 6.1% higher thantillage,respectively.But the mean soil water content of 40 cm in sand covering(16.8%)was the lowest,which was 0.5% lower than tillage.(3)The soil nutrient content with long -term sand covering decreased with increased depth ofsoil. The total nitrogen of 60~80 cm,ammonium nitrogen and available phosphorus of 0~ 20 cm with sand covering were significantly higher and available potassium of 0~20 cm was significantly decreased thantillage.The nitrate was moreaccumulated in deeper layers by sand covering,and mean nitrate content was lower than tillage in 0~80 cm soil layer,while ammonium nitrogen content was significantly decreased with increased depth ofsoil.The soil bulk density of 0~ 20 cm with long-term sand covering was significantly higher thantillage,and soil porosity decreasedsignificantly.The researchsuggested that sand covering has significantly improved rhizosphere environment of fruit trees in apple orchard,which wasbeneficial for enhancing water and fertilizer utilizationefficiency,fruit quality and income oforchards.

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刘小勇,任静,韩富军,彭海,孙文泰,孔芬,李建明,李强.长期覆沙果园土壤温湿度和矿质养分年际变化特征[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):1-11.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-06-10
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-07-21
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14