长期定位不同施肥方式对土壤肥力和微生物的影响
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作者单位:

(北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所,北京 100097)

作者简介:

吴荣(1988-),女,山东济宁人,实习研究员,硕士,从事土壤改良与施肥技术研究。E-mail:750481263@qq.com。

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基金项目:“十三五”科技部重点专项(2017YFD0801204-03);北京市农林科学院平台与创新能力建设项目(KJCX20170302与KJCX201904-4)。


Effects of long-term fertilization on soil fertility and microbial characteristics
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(Institute of Plant Nutrition andResources,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and ForestrySciences,Beijing100097)

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    摘要:

    以北京市农林科学院(房山)新型肥料长期定位试验站为平台,采用田间冬小麦 -夏玉米轮作的方法,探讨了长期不同施肥方式对土壤有机质、养分和微生物特性的影响。结果表明:经过 12年的长期定位施肥后,NPK配施有机废弃物肥和 NPK配施秸秆可以降低土壤 pH值,NPKWN处理降低 pH效果最为明显,pH值相较基础土样降低了 0.18,而单施化肥的处理土壤 pH值均有所增加,处理之间差异不显著;试验地的 EC值在11.7~ 14.5 mS/m之间,各施肥处理与 CK处理相比,施肥增加了土壤 EC值,差异显著,并且配施有机废弃物肥和秸秆处理的土壤 EC值又较 NPK处理偏高;长期施用有机废弃物肥和秸秆的土壤肥力明显提高,施肥对土壤有机质、全氮的变化规律:NPK配施有机废弃物肥 >NPK配施秸秆 >化肥 >CK;土壤中的三大微生物数量,细菌 >放线菌 >真菌,单施化肥与 CK相比,土壤细菌、真菌、放线菌数量都有所提高,化肥与有机废物肥或者与秸秆配合施用的土壤细菌、放线菌数量比单施化肥的增幅效果明显;NPKJG处理土壤中真菌数量最高,达到 4.53×10 4个 /g,与 CK处理相比,增加了 67.7%;长期不同施肥处理的土壤微生物量氮变化介于 24.7~ 44.6 mg/kg之间,各处理土壤微生物量氮变化规律为NPKWN>NPKLJ>NPKJG>NPKJF>NPKMG>NPK>NPKHSF>CK,与对照相比分别增加了80.7%、80.4%、77.2%、72.1%、61.2%、35.7%、23.7%;土壤微生物量氮、细菌数量与土壤有机质、全氮、有效磷呈显著或极显著正相关,土壤放线菌数量与土壤速效钾、有机质、全氮呈显著或极显著正相关,可以作为在长期施肥条件下土壤肥力变化的生物学指标。

    Abstract:

    Based on the long-term site-specific experiment station of Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry SciencesatFangshan,the effects of long -term fertilization on soil organic matter nutrients and microbial characteristics were studied with winter wheat-summer maizerotation.The results showed that after 12 years of long -term fertilization,NPK combinedwith organic waste fertilizer and NPK combined with straw reduced soil pHvalue,NPKWN treatment had the most obviouseffect on reducingpH,which was 0.18 lower than that of the basic soilsample.However,the soil pH value of singlefertilizer treatmentincreased,and there was no significant difference betweentreatments.Compared with CKtreatment,fertilization increased soil ECvalue,and the EC value of soil treated with organic waste fertilizer and straw was higher thanthat of NPK treatment.Long -term application of organic waste fertilizer and straw significantly increased soil fertility,andthe change of soil organic matter and total nitrogen was asfollows:NPK combined with organic waste fertilizer>NPK combinedwith straw>chemicalfertilizer>CK.Compared withCK,the number ofbacteria,fungi and actinomycetes in soilincreased. The amount of bacteria and actinomycetes in soil increased significantly when chemical fertilizer was combined withorganic waste fertilizer or straw.The number of fungi in soil treated with NPKJG was the highest,reaching 4.53×10 4/g,which increased by 67.7% compared with CK.The change of soil microbial biomass nitrogen in different fertilizationtreatments ranged from 24.7 to 44.6mg/kg.The change of soil microbial biomass nitrogen in each treatment was NPKWN>NPKLJ>NPKJG>NPKJF>NPKMG>NPK>NPKHSF>CK,which increased by80.7%,80.4%,77.2%,72.1%,61.2%,35.7% and 23.7% respectively compared with thecontrol.The quantity of soil microbial biomass nitrogen and bacteria waspositively correlated with soil organicmatter,total nitrogen and availablephosphorus,and the quantity of soil actinomyceteswas positively correlated with soil availablepotassium,organic matter and totalnitrogen,which could be used as biological indicators of soil fertility change under long-termfertilization.

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吴荣,刘善江,孙昊,李亚星,马良,白杨.长期定位不同施肥方式对土壤肥力和微生物的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):12-18.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-06-26
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-08-14
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14