华北平原中部夏玉米农田不同施氮水平氨挥发规律
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作者单位:

(1.唐山学院环境与化学工程系,河北 唐山 063000;2.北京市农林科学院农业信息与经济研究所,北京100097;3.北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所,北京 100097)

作者简介:

山楠(1988-),女,河北唐山人,讲师,博士,主要从事农业环境方面研究。E-mail:sn.47@163.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0200103);北京市社科基金(18GLC048)。


Ammonia volatilization from maize cropland under different N applications at a rural area of central Northern China Plain
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(1.Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering,Tangshan University,Tangshan Hebei063000;2.Institute of Agricultural Information andEconomics,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and ForestrySciences,Beijing100097;3.Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences,Beijing100097)

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    摘要:

    以华北平原中部地区潮土为对象,研究了撒施不同水平尿素对夏玉米季氨挥发的影响,为合理施用氮肥和减少农田氨挥发损失提供依据。结合当地农民种植与施氮习惯,试验设置 8个施氮水平,分别为 0(N0)、50(N1)、100(N2)、150(N3)、200(N4)、250(N5)、300(N6)、400(N7)kg·hm -2,利用田间试验原位测定 -密闭室连续抽气法测定氨挥发。结果表明,夏玉米种植体系在施入氮肥后发生了明显的氨挥发,且氨挥发主要发生在施肥后 5 d内,在施肥后 1~ 3 d出现氨挥发速率峰值,基肥与追肥后氨挥发通量最大分别达到 N 2.35、 5.30 kg·hm-2·d-1,基肥期氨挥发量在 N 3.76~ 9.82 kg·hm -2,追肥期氨挥发量在 N 5.79~ 27.29 kg·hm -2。在整个夏玉米生长期间,氨挥发量随着氮肥施用量的增加而增加。施氮量为 200 kg·hm -2条件下,氨挥发量相对较低,夏玉米产量为 10 721.87 kg·hm -2,高于其他施氮水平处理的玉米产量。可见,合理的氮肥用量能够兼顾产量和生态环境,京郊夏玉米田间土壤在 200 kg·hm -2的氮肥水平下,玉米产量最高且氨挥发损失较低。

    Abstract:

    The effects of different urea levels on seasonal ammonia volatilization of summer maize were studied in the fluvo-aquic soils in the central part of North ChinaPlain,which provided a basis for rational application of nitrogen fertilizer andreduction of ammonia volatilization loss in farmland.Combining with the local farmers’ planting and nitrogen applicationhabits,eight levels of nitrogen application were setup,namely0(N0),50(N1),100(N2),150(N3),200(N4),250(N5),300(N6)and400(N7)kg·hm -2.Ammonia volatilization was determined by in situ determinationand continuous air extraction in closed chamber.The results showed that significant ammonia volatilization occurred insummer maize planting system after applying nitrogen fertilizer,and ammonia volatilization mainly occurred within 5 daysafter applying fertilizer.The peak ammonia volatilization rate appeared 1~ 3 days after applyingfertilizer.The maximumammonia volatilization flux of base fertilizer and topdressing reached N2.35,5.30 kg·hm -2·d-1,respectively,and the ammonia volatilization amount of base fertilizer were N 3.76~ 9.82 kg·hm-2 and N 5.79~ 27.29 kg·hm-2 ammoniavolatilization duringtopdressing.During the whole growth period of summermaize,ammonia volatilization increased with theincrease of nitrogen fertilizerapplication.Ammonia volatilization was relatively low under 200 kg·hm -2nitrogenapplication. The yield of summer maize was 10 721.87 kg·hm-2,which was higher than that of other nitrogen applicationtreatments.Itcan be seen that a reasonable amount of nitrogen fertilizer can take into account both yield and ecologicalenvironment.Under 200 kg·hm-2nitrogen fertilizer level in summer maize field in Beijingsuburb,the yield of summer maize is the highest andthe loss of ammonia volatilization is relativelylow.

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山楠,赵同科,杜连凤,安志装,何艳洁,郝玉翠,孙秀君,串丽敏.华北平原中部夏玉米农田不同施氮水平氨挥发规律[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):32-40.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-10
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-09-07
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14