耕作深度及培肥方式对红壤坡耕地土壤理化性质及作物产量的影响
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(1.江西省红壤研究所,江西 南昌 330046;2.华中农业大学资源与环境学院,湖北 武汉 430070;3.江西省蚕桑茶叶研究所,江西 南昌 330203)

作者简介:

黄尚书(1989-),男,江西崇义人,助理研究员,硕士,主要从事红壤生态修复与改良方面研究。E-mail:hss1232005@163.com。

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基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201503119-05-01);江西省重点研发计划项目(20181BBF68009);江西省重点研发计划项目(20161BBF60105)。


Effects of tillage depths and fertilizing patterns on soil physical-chemical properties and crop yield in red soil slop field
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(1.Jiangxi Institute of RedSoil,Nanchang Jiangxi330046;2.College of ResourcesandEnvironment,Huazhong AgriculturalUniversity,Wuhan Hubei430070;3.Jiangxi Sericulture and Tea ResearchInstitute,Nanchang Jiangxi330203)

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    摘要:

    针对当前红壤坡耕地耕层瘠薄化问题,研究耕作深度及培肥方式对土壤理化性质、作物产量及耕层土壤质量的影响。试验以免耕(NT)、耕翻 10cm(P10)、耕翻 20cm(P20)、耕翻 30cm(P30)为主处理,以单施化肥(NPK)和有机无机配施(NPK+OM)为副处理设置裂区试验,进行土壤理化性质及作物产量的观测,并评价不同处理下耕层土壤质量。结果表明:(1)与 NT处理相比,P10、P20、P30处理提高了 0~ 30cm土层土壤有机质及速效养分含量,尤其以 P20处理下 0~ 20 cm土层土壤有机质及速效养分的积累效果最佳;P10、P20、P30处理还改善了对应耕作深度土层的土壤物理性质(土壤田间持水量除外),但造成了对应耕作深度下层土壤压实现象;不同耕作深度下花生、红薯产量均以 P20处理最高,平均比 NT、P10、P30处理高47.96%、33.29%、17.05%。(2)与 NPK培肥方式相比,NPK+OM培肥方式有利于维持 0~ 30 cm各土层土壤有机质、速效养分含量的稳定,一定程度改善 0~ 40 cm各土层土壤物理性质,并提高作物产量(提高 6.70%);但 NPK+OM培肥方式结合耕作深度处理对作物的增产效果并不一致:在 P10、P20、P30处理下,NPK+OM结合 P20处理的增产效果最佳(增产 9.60%)。(3)对不同处理下红壤坡耕地耕层土壤质量的评价结果表明,不同耕作深度下耕层土壤质量指数以 P20处理最高,两种培肥方式下耕层土壤质量指数表现为 NP-K+OM培肥方式显著高于 NPK培肥方式;进一步分析发现,作物产量与耕层土壤质量指数呈极显著正相关,说明不同耕作深度及培肥方式通过影响耕层土壤质量进而影响作物产量的形成。因此,对于种植典型农作物的红壤坡耕地,耕作深度 20 cm在改善耕层土壤物理性质的基础上,更有利于有机质及速效养分的积累,并使作物获得较高的产量,且与有机无机培肥相结合可进一步获得较好的增产效果,为红壤坡耕地合理耕层构建提供了支撑。

    Abstract:

    Aiming at the problem of poor tilth soil in red soil slopefield,the effects of tillage depth and fertilization methods onsoil physical and chemicalproperties,crop yield and soil quality of tilth soil were studied. The physical -chemical properties of soilwere observed and the quality of tilth soil was evaluated under the split plotexperiment,which no -tillage(NT),ploughing 10 cm(P10),ploughing 20 cm(P20),ploughing 30 cm(P30)were set up as main treatments,and chemical fertilizer(NPK), organic-inorganic fertilizer(NPK+OM)as auxiliary treatment. Results showedthat:(1)Compared with NTtreatment,P10,P20 and P30 treatments increased the content of soil organic matter and available nutrients in 0~30 cm soillayer,and the accumulationeffects of soil organic matter and available nutrients in 0~ 20 cm soil layer under P20 treatment were thebest;Meanwhile,P10,P20 and P30 treatments also improved the physical properties of soil in corresponding tillagedepth(except soil water holdingcapacity),but caused the phenomenon of soil compaction under the corresponding tillage depth. The yields of peanut and sweetpotato were the highest at P20 treatment under different tillagedepths,which were averagely47.96%,33.29% and 17.05% higherthan NT,P10 and P30 treatments.(2)Compared with NPK fertilizing patterns,NPK+OM fertilizing patterns was beneficial to maintaining the stability of soil organic matter and available nutrients content in 0~30 cm soillayers,improving soil physicalproperties in 0~ 40 cm soil layers to a certainextent,and increasing cropyield(increased by6.70%).However,the increasingeffects of NPK+OM fertilizing patterns combined with different tillage depths treatments on crop yield were notconsistent:under thetreatments ofP10,P20 andP30,NPK+OM combined with P20 treatment had the best yield increase(increased by9.60%).(3)The evaluation results of soil quality under different treatments showed that the tilth soil quality index under different tillagedepths was the highest at P20 treatment,and NPK+OM fertilizing pattern was higher than NPK fertilizing pattern under twofertilizing patterns. Further analysis showed that crop yield was extremely significant correlated with the tilth soil qualityindex, indicating that different tillage depths and fertilizing pattern affected the formation of crop yield by affecting the tilth soil quality. Forred soil slop field which planting typicalcrops,the tillage depth of 20 cm is more conducive to the accumulation of organic matterand available nutrients content on the basis of improving the physical properties of the tilthsoil,and makes the crop obtain higheryield,and combining with organic -inorganic fertilizer can further obtain better yield-increasingeffect,which provides support for the rational construction of the tillage layer in red soil slop field.

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黄尚书,钟义军,黄欠如,武琳,何绍浪,成艳红,张昆,吴艳,叶川.耕作深度及培肥方式对红壤坡耕地土壤理化性质及作物产量的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):72-83.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-09
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  • 录用日期:2019-10-19
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14