不同耕作方式下有机肥施用量对华北潮土性质及作物产量的影响
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(1.河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所,河南 郑州 450002;2.河北旅游职业学院,河北 承德 067000;3.西平县农业局,河南 西平 463900)

作者简介:

张水清(1982-),男,河南南阳人,副研究员,硕士,主要从事土壤培肥与植物营养方面研究。E-mail:zsq510@163.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301103、2016YFD0300809)。


Effect of organic fertilizer application dosages on the properties of fluvo-aquic soil and crop yield under different tillage modes in North China
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(1.Institute of Plant Nutrition and Environmental Resources Science,Henan Academyof Agricultural Sciences,Zhengzhou Henan450002;2.Hebei Tourism VocationalCollege,Chengde Hebei067000;3.Xiping County Bureau ofAgriculture,Xiping Henan463900)

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    摘要:

    探讨不同耕作方式下有机肥施用量对华北潮土理化特性和作物产量的影响,为该区域土壤培肥及作物增产提供科学依据。以华北冬小麦 -夏玉米轮作体系为研究对象,试验采用裂区设计,以耕作方式为主区,有机肥施用量为副区。耕作方式设深翻和旋耕 2个水平(分别以 DT和 RT表示);有机肥施用量设 0、7.5、15和 22.5 t/hm24个水平(分别以 M 0、M7.5、M15、M22.5表示)。在作物成熟期采集 0~ 20 cm土壤样品并进行产量测定,采用常规方法进行土壤有机质(SOM)、全氮(TN)、有效磷(AP)、速效钾(AK)、硝态氮(NO 3--N)、铵态氮(NH 4+-N)的测定。结果表明,深翻条件下,不同施肥量下土壤 SOM、TN、AP、AK和 NH 4+-N含量均无显著差异;DT-M 15和DT-M 22.5处理的土壤NO 3--N含量最高,分别为125.28和137.7 mg/kg,显著高于DT-M 0处理和DT-M 7.5处+理(P<0.05)。旋耕条件下,与 RT-M 0相比,RT-M 7.5处理下土壤SOM、AK和 NH 4 -N含量,分别显著提高了15.26%、52.70%和119.19%。深翻条件下,DT-M 15和 DT-M 22.5处理的小麦和玉米产量最高,分别比 DT-M 0的小麦产量显著高 14.1%和19.0%,比 DT-M 0的玉米产量显著高 19.9%和23.5%。在旋耕条件下,RT-M 7.5处理的小麦产量最高,分别比 RT-M 0处理和 RT-M 15的小麦产量显著高 22.6%和 21.4%;旋耕条件下的玉米产量在不同有机肥施用量之间无显著差异。综上所述,在华北潮土区,深翻 -中量有机肥(15 t/hm2)和旋耕 -低量有机肥(7.5 t/hm2)是提升土壤肥力、提高小麦玉米产量较为理想的耕作与施肥方式,但其作用机理及长期效果还需进一步试验研究。

    Abstract:

    To investigate the effects of different application levels of organic fertilizer on the physical and chemical properties of fluvo-aquic soil and crop yield in agricultural areas of NorthChina,we conducted this experiment aiming to provide a scientific basis for soil fertility and crop yield improvement in this region. This study focused on the winter wheat-summermaize rotation area in NorthChina,to figure out the effects of different combinations of organic fertilizers and tillage modes on soil nutrient contents and crop yield. A split-plot design was used in theexperiment,where tillage mode was taken as themain plot,and the dosages of organic fertilizer was taken as the split -plot. The tillage mode was set up at two levels—deeptillage(DT)and rotary tillage(RT);the dosages of organic fertilizer were set up at four levels—0,7.5,15 and 22.5 t/ hm2(represented by M 0,M7.5,M15 and M22.5). Soilsamples(0~ 20cm)were collected during the crop maturity periodand the yields were determined. Soil organic matter(SOM),total nitrogen(TN),available phosphorus(AP),availablepotassium(AK),nitratenitrogen(NO 3 --N)and ammoniumnitrogen(NH 4+-N)were measured by conventional methods.Results showedthat,under deep tillage condition,there were no significant differences of SOM,TN,AP,AK and NH 4+-Ncontents in soil among different organic fertilizer applicationrates;DT -M15 and DT-M22.5 treatments had the highest soil NO3 --Ncontent(125.28 and 137.7mg/kg,respectively),which was significantly higher than no organic fertilizer treatment and DT-M7.5treatment( P<0.05). Under the condition of rotarytillage,compared with the treatment RT -M0,the soilSOM, AK and NH4+-N contents of RT-M7.5treatment significantly increased by15.26%,52.70% and119.19%,respectively.Under deep tillagecondition,the yields of wheat and corn of DT -M15 and DT-M22.5were thehighest,which were 14.1%(DT -MT15)and 19.0%(DT -M22.5)higher forwheat,and 19.9%(DT -MT15)and 23.5%(DT -M22.5)higher forcorn,compared with that of DT-M0treatment. Under rotary tillage conditions,RT -M7.5treated wheat had the highestyield,which was 22.6% and 21.4% higher than RT-M0 treatment and RT-M15treatment,respectively. There was no difference in maize yield among different organic fertilizer application rates under rotary tillage conditions. In the fluvo-aquic soil area of NorthChina,DT -M15 treatment and RT-M7.5 treatment are ideal fertilization and tillage combination for improving soil fertility and the yield of wheatand maize.However,the mechanism and long -term effects require further studies.

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张水清,岳克,杜丽君,王更新,宋晓,郭斗斗,张珂珂,张玉亭,黄绍敏.不同耕作方式下有机肥施用量对华北潮土性质及作物产量的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):84-89.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-18
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-09-22
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14