不同施肥模式下稻 -虾共作的氮磷平衡及效益分析
作者:
作者单位:

(1.长江大学湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心,湖北 荆州 434025;2.长江大学生命科学学院,湖北 荆州 434025)

作者简介:

张丁月(1991-),山西朔州人,硕士研究生,主要从事土壤肥力与养分循环的研究。E-mail:1040079368@qq.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:长江大学湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心开放基金(KF201805);“十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300900);湖北省生态循环农业创新体系项目(2018skjcx01)。


Nitrogen-phosphorus balance and economic benefit of rice-crayfish culture under different fertilization patterns
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Affiliation:

(1.Engineering Research Centerof Ecology and Agricultural Use ofWetland,Mininistry ofEducation,Yangtze University,Jingzhou Hubei434025;2.College of LifeScience,YangtzeUniversity,Jingzhou Hubei434025)

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    摘要:

    稻 -虾共作综合种养产业发展迅速,完善稻田养分管理对于协调养分平衡及提高肥料利用率具有重要意义。通过设置有机肥施用(T1,养殖沟分次施有机肥 +水稻施有机无机复混肥)、缓 /控释肥施用(T2,养殖沟不施肥 +水稻施缓 /控释肥)和腐植酸肥施用(T3,养殖沟施菌剂 +水稻施腐植酸肥)共 3个处理,研究稻 -虾共作系统的氮磷平衡以及系统效益。结果表明,水稻产量呈现 T1 ≈ T2>T3,而虾的产量呈现 T3>T2>T1。从水质上看,T1能显著提高小龙虾的食物来源,其小龙虾的平均单重也分别是 T2和 T3的 1.3和 2.3倍;从经济效益看,T3利润最高,为 46 098.5元/hm2,比 T1高 19.7%。氮和磷平衡最佳的分别是 T1和 T3,但由于 T3水稻产量太低而不利于粮食安全。综上,从“藏粮于地”的角度要优选缓 /控释肥,在保证水稻产量的前提下增加农户收益,分次施用适量有机肥和施用微生物菌剂能够分别利于提高虾的单重和总产,但有机肥的施用也存在风险,需限制有机肥的单次用量以控制水体氨氮含量。

    Abstract:

    The integrated rice-crayfish farming has been developingrapidly,and the improvement of nutrient managementis significant for nutrient balance and the improvement of fertilizer use efficiency. In this study,organic fertilization(T1,organic fertilization for breeding ditch + organic and inorganic fertilization for rice),steady fertilization(T2,no fertilizerfor breeding ditch +slow/controlled released fertilizer forrice)and ecologicalfarming(T3,no fertilizer but bacterial culturefor breeding ditch + humic fertilization forrice)were set to study the system benefits and the nitrogen -phosphorus balance of the whole rice-crayfish system. The results showed that rice yield showed T1 ≈T2>T3,while crayfish yield and totalnet income showed T3>T2>T1. From the view of waterquality,T1 can significantly improve the food source of crayfish,and the average single weight of crayfish of T1 is 1.3 and 2.3 times of T2 andT3,respectively. From the perspective ofeconomic efficiency,T3 has the highest profit of 46 098.5 yuan/hm2,19.7% higher than T1. The nitrogen balance of T1 isthebest,and phosphorus balance of T3 is the best. Insummary,T2 model should be advantageous for food security from theperspective of“grabbing grain in the land”,and the income should also be better. Organic fertilizer could improve the single weight of crayfish and microbial agents could increase crayfish yield. Massive organic fertilizer application has the potential risk to pollute waterbody and should be limited not to be excessive for each application.

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张丁月,杨亚珍,刘凯文,朱建强,侯俊.不同施肥模式下稻 -虾共作的氮磷平衡及效益分析[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):124-129.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-23
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-09-22
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14