新型氮肥对潮土冬小麦产量及氮肥利用率的影响
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(1.河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所,河南 郑州 450002;2.河南心连心化学工业集团股份有限公司,河南 新乡 453700)

作者简介:

岳克(1991-),男,河南省南阳市人,硕士研究生,从事土壤学研究。E-mail:779048388@qq.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301103);河南省农业科学院优秀青年基金项目(2020YQ13)。


Effects of new-type and application rate of N-fertilizer on yield,nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of wheat in wheat-summer maize rotation system
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(1.Institute of Plant Nutrition and Environmental ResourcesScience,Henan Academy of AgriculturalSciences,Zhengzhou Henan450002;2.Henan Xinlianxin Chemicals Group Co.Ltd.,Xinxiang Henan453700)

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    摘要:

    通过研究不同施氮量下,新型氮肥与普通氮肥对潮土大田冬小麦产量、产量构成因素、地上部吸氮量、氮肥利用率和土壤全氮含量的影响,用以探明华北潮土区小麦玉米轮作体系下科学合理施氮及适宜氮肥品种。从2016年 6月开始在河南省现代农业研究开发基地 -轻壤质潮土上设置了 3种氮肥(控失尿素、腐植酸尿素和普通尿素)和 6个施氮水平(0、100、150、200、250、300 kg·hm -2)的长期试验,以不施氮为对照,共 16个处理。小麦收获期测产,并统计产量构成因素。结果表明:氮肥类型和施氮量及两者交互作用对小麦产量构成因素、地上部吸氮量和氮肥利用率都有显著影响。3种氮肥,冬小麦产量均随着施氮量的增加而增加。各施氮处理与不施氮相比,分别增产 29.0%~66.2%、27.7%~79.7%、13.9%~59.4%。其中,控失尿素的增产效果显著,与腐植酸尿素和普通尿素相比,在施氮量为 300 kg·hm -2时,达到最大产量 7 970 kg·hm -2,比普通尿素和腐植酸尿素分别提高了 8.1%和 12.7%。3种氮肥和施氮量对小麦产量构成因素也有显著或极显著影响。小麦每公顷穗数随着施氮量增加而增加,并且控失尿素和腐植酸尿素小麦平均每公顷穗数分别比普通尿素提高了 12.8%和 17.3%。其中,腐植酸尿素处理小麦穗粒数随着施氮量的增加而增加,在施氮量为 300 kg·hm -2时,最大穗粒数达到 34.6粒·穗 -1,比普通尿素增加了 23.1%。对于 3种施氮肥处理,小麦地上部吸氮量均随着施氮量的增加而增加,与小麦产量表现一致的趋势。其中以控失尿素的小麦地上部平均吸氮量最大,为 161.3 kg·hm -2;其次是腐植酸尿素,为 154.7 kg·hm-2,分别比普通尿素提高了 9.6%和 5.1%。与普通尿素相比,控失尿素平均氮肥利用率提高了 9.6个百分点,施用控失尿素能够提高小麦氮肥利用率、偏生产力和农学效率。其中腐植酸尿素处理,小麦氮肥利用率随施氮量的增加而增加。新型氮肥(控失尿素和腐植酸尿素)通过提高小麦产量构成因素、小麦产量、小麦氮素吸收量,从而提高小麦氮肥利用率。本试验条件下,从提高产量和氮肥利用率方面考虑,控失尿素的增产效果优于腐植酸尿素,在施氮量为 300 kg·hm -2时,达到最大产量。

    Abstract:

    In thispaper,the effects of new -type N-fertilizers(release-controlled urea and humic acid-urea)and commonurea on wheat yield,nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency were studied to explore the scientific and rational application of nitrogen and suitable nitrogen fertilizer varieties under wheat-maize rotation system in alluvial soil area of NorthChina.SinceJune2016,with no nitrogen fertilizer ascontrol,three nitrogenfertilizers(release -controlledurea,humic acid -urea andcommonurea)and six nitrogen levels(0,100,150,200,250,300 kg·hm -2),totally 16 treatments were set up onsandy alluvial soil of a modern agricultural research and development base in Henanprovince.The yield of winter wheatwas measured at harvest and the yield components werecounted.The results showed that the yield of winter wheat increasedwith the increasing nitrogen fertilizer.Compared withCK,the yield increased by 29.0%~66.2%,27.7%~79.7%, 13.9%~59.4% for the three fertilizationtreatments,in which the release -controlled urea was the besttreatment,and it obtained the maximum yield of 7 970 kg·hm-2 when nitrogen application was 300 kg·hm-2,which was 8.1% and 12.7% higher than that of common urea and humic acid-ureatreatments,respectively.With the increase of nitrogenfertilizer, The average spikes per hectare of wheat with release-controlled urea and humic acid-urea increased by 12.8% and 17.3%than that of commonurea,respectively.The grain number per spike of wheat for the humic acid -urea treatments increasedsignificantly with the increase of nitrogen applicationrate,when nitrogen application rate was 300 kg·hm -2,the maximumgrain number per spike was 34.6,which was 23.1% higher than that of common urea.For all the three kinds of ureatreatments,nitrogen uptake accumulation of the above -ground parts of wheat increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer,which had the consistent pattern of wheat yield.Among them,the average nitrogen uptake was the highest in wheat shoot treated with release-controlledurea(161.3 kg·hm -2),followed by humic acid -ureatreatment(154.7 kg·hm -2).Compared with commonurea,average nitrogen use efficiency of release -controlled urea increased by 9.6%,which indicted that the application of release-controlled urea could improve the nitrogen useefficiency,partial productivity and agriculturalefficiency of wheat.In the treatment of humic acid -urea,the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer increased with the increaseof nitrogen useefficiency.New nitrogenfertilizers(release -controlled urea and humic acid-urea)can improve the nitrogenutilization efficiency of wheat by increasing the yield components,wheat yield and nitrogen uptake ofwheat.Under theconditions of thisexperiment,the release -controlled urea was the best for increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency.The maximum yield was achieved when nitrogen was applied at 300 kg·hm-2.

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岳克,钟雯瑾,宋晓,张珂珂,郭斗斗,黄绍敏,杨自超,张水清.新型氮肥对潮土冬小麦产量及氮肥利用率的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):130-139.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-03
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  • 录用日期:2019-12-27
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14