内蒙古典型生态区不同类型向日葵氮肥响应差异
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作者单位:

(1.内蒙古自治区土壤肥料学会,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;2.鄂尔多斯市土壤肥料和节水农业工作站,内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017010;3.内蒙古自治区农牧业科学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010031;4.内蒙古农业大学沙漠治理学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010019;5.内蒙古自治区土壤肥料和节水农业工作站,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;6.鄂尔多斯市农业技术推广站,内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017010;7.鄂尔多斯市杭锦旗农业技术推广中心,内蒙古 杭锦旗 017400)

作者简介:

王伟妮(1984-),女,山东潍坊人,农艺师,博士,主要从事现代施肥技术方面的研究。E-mail:i_happy18@126.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:内蒙古减肥增效项目;内蒙古耕地质量评价项目;内蒙古耕地质量保护与提升项目。


Differences in responses to nitrogen fertilizer of edible sunflower and oil sunflower in typical ecological zones of Inner Mongolia
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Affiliation:

(1.Inner Mongolia Soil and FertilizerSociety,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010011;2.Ordos Soil and Fertilizer and Water-Saving Agriculture Work Station,Ordos Inner Mongolia017010;3.Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and AnimalHusbandry Sciences,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010031;4.College of Desert Control Science andEngineering,InnerMongolia AgriculturalUniversity,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010019;5.Inner Mongolia Soil and Fertilizer and Water-SavingAgriculture WorkStation,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010011;6.Ordos Agricultural Technology PromotionStation,OrdosInner Mongolia017010;7.Hangjinqi Agricultural TechnologyCenter,Hangjinqi Inner Mongolia017400)

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    摘要:

    利用 2006~ 2016年内蒙古向日葵“3414”田间试验数据,评估食用向日葵和油用向日葵在不同生态区之间的氮肥响应及其差异,并分析土壤基础供氮能力对向日葵氮肥效应的影响。结果显示:推荐施氮条件下,食用向日葵在河套灌区、阴山北麓区和燕山丘陵区的施氮增产幅度分别为 35.1%、47.6%和 35.5%,偏生产力分别为24.1、22.8和 22.7kg/kg,农学利用率分别为5.6、6.6和 5.7kg/kg;油用向日葵在河套灌区、大兴安岭南麓区和燕山丘陵区的施氮增产幅度分别为32.8%、39.3%和18.9%,偏生产力分别为26.2、39.7和 37.7kg/kg,农学利用率分别为 5.6、10.8和 6.0 kg/kg。食葵和油葵的 100 kg籽粒吸氮量均值分别为 4.6和 4.7 kg,吸收利用率分别为30.1%和 38.9%,生理利用率分别为 20.3和 20.8 kg/kg。上述结果表明,内蒙古食葵施氮的增产效果优于油葵,食葵产量对外源氮肥的依赖程度也高于油葵,因而食葵相较于油葵更应重视氮肥的管理和调控;不同生态区自然环境和土壤地力的差异也显著影响了向日葵的氮肥增产效应,河套灌区应积极进行土壤培肥,燕山丘陵区和大兴安岭南麓区可适当增加施氮量,阴山北麓区则应以维持向日葵需求为标准适当减少施氮量。

    Abstract:

    A total of 392 sunflower“3414”field experiments were conducted in Inner mongolia during 2006~2016,the data in these experiments were collected in this study,aiming to compare sunflower yield response to N fertilizer andinvestigate the effects of soil indigenous N supply on N fertilizer responses of sunflower yield among different ecologicalzones. The results showed that N fertilizer application played an important role for ensuring high yield in the sunflower production ofInner mongolia. The relative yield increase of edible sunflower to N fertilizer was 35.1% in the Hetao irrigation district(HID),47.6% in the northern foot of Yinshan mountain(NFYM)and 35.5% in the hilly area of Yanshan mountain(HAYM),respectively.The relative yield increase of oil sunflower to N fertilizer was 32.8% in theHID,39.3% in the southern foot ofthe greaterhinggan(SFGH)and 18.9% in theHAYM,respectively.Under current optimal N application ratecondition, the PFPNof edible sunflower was averaged at 24.1 kg/kg in theHID,22.8 kg/kg in the NFYM,and 22.7 kg/kg in theHAYM;and the values of NAE were5.6,6.6,and 5.7 kg/kg in the three ecologicalzones,respectively.The PFP N of oilsunflower was averaged at 26.2 kg/kg in theHID,39.7 kg/kg in theSFGH,and 37.7 kg/kg in theHAYM;and the values ofNAE were5.6,10.8,and 6.0 kg/kg in the three ecologicalzones,respectively.Furthermore,N absorption of 100 kg seedsof edible sunflower and oil sunflower were 4.6 and 4.7kg,N recoveryefficiencies(NRE)were 30.1% and38.9%,and Nphysiological efficiencies(NPE)were 20.3 and 20.8 kg/kg in Inner Mongolia,respectively.Inconclusion,compared withoil sunflower,yield response to N fertilizer was relatively higher for ediblesunflower.As aresult,N fertilizer managementand adjustment should receive more attention for the edible sunflower production than oil sunflower in Inner mongolia.N fertilizer response to sunflower yield was significantly affected by ecological zones due to natural environment characteristicsand soil fertility,and thereby N fertilizer should be allocated and managed appropriately in the crop production based onregional soil indigenous N supply and crop response to Nfertilization.It is suggested that the technology of efficient and watersaving irrigation should be widely extrapolated in addition to soil fertility building in theHID,and the current N applicationrate should be increased slightly in combination with effective cultivation practices in the HAYM andSFGH,while it should be reduced properly in line with the demand of the sunflower for N in the NFYM.

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王伟妮,高娃,郑硕,郜翻身,苏伟,李瑞,李娜,王小峰.内蒙古典型生态区不同类型向日葵氮肥响应差异[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):140-149.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-30
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  • 录用日期:2019-09-29
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14