旱作藜麦养分吸收规律及养分限制因子研究
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(1.山西农业大学资源环境学院,山西 太谷 030801;2.山西省农业科学院农业环境与资源研究所,山西 太原 030031;3.山西大学生物工程学院,山西 太原 030006;4.山西农业大学,山西 太原 030031)

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王斌(1978-),男,山西吕梁人,副研究员,硕士,主要研究方向为植物营养与环境生态。E-mail:flytoyou@163.com。

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基金项目:山西省农科院农业科技创新研究课题:藜麦养分需求规律与施肥技术研究(YCX2018D2T01);山西省科技成果转化引导专项:旱地藜麦减肥增效集成技术示范推广(201904D131054);山西省专利推广实施资助专项:晋西北高寒山区藜麦专用肥示范与推广(2019043)。


Nutrient absorption rule and nutrient restrictive factors of quinoa in dryland
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(1.College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu Shanxi030801;2.Institute ofAgricultural Environment andResources,Shanxi Academy of AgriculturalSciences,Taiyuan Shanxi030031;3.Collegeof BiologicalEngineering,ShanxiUniversity,Taiyuan Shanxi030006;4.Shanxi AgriculturalUniversity,Taiyuan Shanxi030031)

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    摘要:

    为明确旱作藜麦的养分吸收特征,开展田间试验研究藜麦对氮、磷、钾养分需求规律及其养分限制因子,以期为旱作藜麦大面积推广和高效生产提供合理的施肥方案。本试验以‘陇藜 1号’为材料开展大田肥料缺素试验,分析在全施肥区不同生育期藜麦的干物质量、养分含量及积累量。结果表明:孕穗期和灌浆期是藜麦整个生育期内干物质累积量最大和日累积量增长最快的两个阶段,其中孕穗期干物质累积量占干物质总量的 48.14%,且单株干物质日累积量为 6.42 g,灌浆期干物质累积量占干物质总量的 27.93%,且单株干物质日累积量为 1.58 g;藜麦对氮素的吸收量和吸收速率在花期 -孕穗期这一阶段达到最大值,吸收量占吸收总量的 29.97%,吸收速率达到 7.15 kg·hm -2·d-1;藜麦对磷素吸收量最大的生育期是孕穗 -灌浆期,为 17.49 kg·hm -2,占总量的32.70%,但吸收速率却在花期 -孕穗期最高,为 0.96 kg·hm -2·d-1;孕穗期 -灌浆期是藜麦对钾吸收量最高的时期,为 103.24 kg·hm-2,占总量的 31.09%,吸收速率在花期 -孕穗期最快,为 6.30 kg·hm -2·d-1。单位面积氮、磷、钾吸收累积量分别为353.88、53.63、333.62 kg·hm -2,其比例为 6.60∶1∶6.22。氮磷钾全施显著提高藜麦的产量,缺氮、缺磷、缺钾、全施处理与没有施肥处理相比较,增产幅度为 18.2%~ 118%,所有施氮的处理比不施氮的处理增产 84.2%,所有施磷的处理比不施磷的处理增产 37.4%,所有施钾的处理比不施钾的处理增产 5.7%,限制藜麦生长及产量的养分因子大小顺序为氮 >磷 >钾。

    Abstract:

    The field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient requirements ofnitrogen,phosphorus and potassium inquinoa and its nutrient limiting factors,in order to provide a reasonable fertilization scheme for large -scale promotion andefficient production ofquinoa.In thisexperiment, ‘long li 1’was used as a material to carry out the field fertilizer deficiencytest,and the dry matterquality,nutrient content and accumulation amount of quinoa in different growth stages in the wholefertilization area wereanalyzed.The results showed that the booting stage and the filling stage were the two stages in whichquinoa had the largest dry matter accumulation and the fastest daily accumulation during the whole growthperiod.The drymatter accumulation at the booting stage accounted for 48.14% of the total dry matter,and the daily accumulation of drymatter was 6.42g,and the accumulation of dry matter in the filling period accounted for 27.93% of the total drymatter,andthe daily accumulation of dry matter was 1.58 g.The amount and rate of nitrogen absorption of quinoa reached peak value during the flowering-bootingstage,the absorption amount accounted for 29.97% of the totalabsorption,and the absorption rate reached 7.15 kg·hm-2·d-1.The maximum phosphorus absorption period of quinoa was at the booting -filling stage, which was 17.49 kg·hm-2,accounting for 32.70% of the total,but the absorption rate was the highest during the flowering -booting stage,which was 0.96 kg·hm -2·d-1.The booting -filling period was the period in which quinoa had the highestpotassium absorption,which was 103.24 kg·hm -2,accounting for 31.09% of thetotal,and the absorption rate was the fastest at the flowering-bootingstage,which was 6.30 kg·hm -2·d-1.The cumulative amounts ofnitrogen,phosphorusand potassium absorption per unit area were353.88,53.63 and 333.62 kg·hm -2,the ratio of which was 6.60∶1∶6.22.Total application ofN,P,and K significantly increased the yield ofquinoa.Compared with the treatment withoutfertilizer,the treatments of nitrogendeficiency,phosphorusdeficiency,potassiumdeficiency,and total application increased theyield from 18.2% to118%.The yield of all treatments with nitrogen increased by 84.2% compared with the treatmentswithoutnitrogen.All treatments with phosphorus increased by 37.4% compared with the treatment withoutphosphorus.Alltreatments with potassium increased by 5.7% compared to the treatment withoutpotassium.The order of nutrient factors thatrestricted the growth and yield of quinoa wasnitrogen>phosphorus>potassium.

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王斌,赵圆峰,聂督,霍晓兰,黄高鉴,张强.旱作藜麦养分吸收规律及养分限制因子研究[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(4):172-177.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-26
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  • 录用日期:2020-05-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-09-14