缓 /控释肥条施对春玉米产量、吸氮量与氮平衡的影响
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(宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所,宁夏 银川 750002)

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赵营(1979-),男,河南项城人,副研究员,博士,主要从事新型肥料研制、农田养分循环与环境研究。E-mail:tony029@126.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFD0800802、2017YFD0201807);宁夏农林科学院科技创新引导项目(NKYJ -19-03、NKYG-15-15)。


Yield,N uptake,and apparent N balance in spring maize as affected by side bar application of slow/controlled release fertilizers
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(Institute of Agricultural ResourcesandEnvironment,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and ForestrySciences,Yinchuan Ningxia750002)

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    摘要:

    为实现宁夏引黄灌区春玉米一次性施肥目的,同时提高作物产量和氮肥利用率,降低环境污染风险。以晋单 73春玉米为供试作物,在宁夏引黄灌区通过田间试验研究了不施肥(CK)、农民习惯施肥(CON,N 360 kg/hm2,基肥 N∶追肥 N=60%∶40%)、普通复合肥(CF,15-15-15,N 240 kg/hm2,一次性条施)、缓释肥(SRF,22-8-6,N 240 kg/hm2,一次性条施)、控释掺混肥(BB,17-20-8,N 240 kg/hm2,一次性条施)5个施肥处理对春玉米产量、氮素吸收利用、土壤无机氮残留和氮素表观平衡的影响。结果表明,与 CON处理相比,SRF和BB处理下子粒产量分别显著提高了 19.2%和 20.0%,收获指数显著增加了 0.04和 0.07。相对于 CON和 CF处理,SRF和 BB处理能显著促进春玉米子粒和地上部对氮素吸收累积。缓 /控释肥条施明显降低 0~ 100 cm土壤剖面硝态氮残留,而 CON处理下硝态氮可淋洗到 60~ 100 cm深层土壤。氮肥为主要氮素输入来源(N 240~ 360 kg/hm2),其次为试验前 0~ 100 cm土体 N min残留(N 200.0 kg/hm2);玉米地上部吸氮量为氮素主要输出项(N 172.4~ 292.7 kg/hm2)。相对于 CON处理,SRF、BB处理土壤 N min残留量、氮素表观损失分别显著降低了62.8%和56.2%、23.9%和42.0%。与SRF、BB处理相比,同等施氮量下,CF处理造成氮素表观损失高达 150.0 kg/hm2,氮素表观盈余率为70.8%。不同施肥处理下春玉米当季氮肥表观利用率为 16.6%~50.1%,SRF、BB较 CON处理提高了 2.7~ 3.0倍,且其氮素表观盈余率分别降低到 54.5%和 49.8%。因此,与农民习惯施肥相比,缓 /控释肥均可实现一次性条施,同时显著提高春玉米子粒产量,促进作物氮素吸收利用,降低土壤无机氮残留和氮素表观损失,节约氮肥 30%以上。

    Abstract:

    To achieve one-time fertilization in spring maize in the Yellow River Irrigation Region ofNingxia,increasecrop yield and Nutilization,and reduce the risk of environmentalpollution,a field experiment was conducted to study theeffects of five fertilization methods onyield,N uptake and utilization,soil nitrogen content and apparent N balance usingJindan 73 of spring maize as test material.Five treatments were setup,including no fertilizers(CK),local farmers’conventionalfertilizers(CON,N 360 kg/hm2,base fertilizer N∶topdressing N=60%∶40%),commodity compoundfertilizer(CF,15 -15-15,N 240 kg/hm2,side bar application in one -time),slow release compound fertilizer for springmaize(SRF,22 -8-6,N 240 kg/hm2,side bar application in one -time),controlled release fertilizer for spring maize(BB,17 -20-8,N 240 kg/hm2,side bar application in one -time).The results showed that grain yields of spring maize intreatments SRF and BB were significantly increased by 19.2% and 20.0% in contrast to treatmentCON,respectively;that ofharvest index were significantly increased by 0.04 and0.07,respectively.The grain N and shoot N uptake were significantlyimproved in treatments SRF and BB compared with treatments CON andCF.Soil residual nitrate N was obviously decreased in profile of 0~100 cm by side bar application of slow/controlled release fertilizers,however,nitrate N was leached to deep soil of 60~100 cm in treatmentCON.Fertilizer N was the first important Ninput(N 240~ 360 kg/hm2),and the other important N input was the regional residual Nmin(200.0 kg/hm2)in soil of 0~100 cm before the experiment;N uptake by spring maize was the main Noutput(172.4~ 292.7 kg/hm2).In contrast to treatmentCON,soil residual Nminwere significantly decreased by 62.8% and56.2%,and apparent N losses were significantly decreased by 23.9% and 42.0% in treatments SRF and BB,respectively.At the same N supplying of treatments SRF and BB, apparent N loss was 150.0 kg/hm2 in treatment CF, and apparent N surplus rate was 70.8%. Apparent seasonal N recovery rates were ranged from16.6%~ 50.1% in spring maize in different fertilizationmethods,that was increased 2.7~ 3.0 times in treatments SRF andBB than in treatmentCON,and apparent N surplus rates were 54.5% and49.8%,respectively.Therefore,compared withconventional fertilization,side bar application of slow/controlled release fertilizers in one time is a method for significantlyincreasing grain yield in spring maize,improving its shoot N uptake and utilization,decreasing soil residual N min andapparent Nlosses,and saving more than 30% of Nfertilizers.

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赵营,刘晓彤,罗健航,赵天成,张学军.缓 /控释肥条施对春玉米产量、吸氮量与氮平衡的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):34-39.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-08-29
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-09-28
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06