氮肥运筹对苏打盐碱地水稻养分积累、转运及分配的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.黑龙江八一农垦大学农学院,黑龙江省现代农业栽培技术与作物种质改良重点实验室,黑龙江 大庆 163319;2.牡丹江市农业技术推广总站,黑龙江 牡丹江 157000;3.北大荒垦丰种业股份有限公司,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150090)

作者简介:

姜红芳(1993-),女,黑龙江人,硕士研究生,从事水稻栽培机理研究。E-mail:jhf1921@163.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300104);黑龙江八一农垦大学青年创新人才项目(CXRC2017001);黑龙江八一农垦学科研团队平台支持计划(TDJH201802);黑龙江八一农垦大学研究生创新科研项目(YJSCX2018-Y03)。


Effects of nitrogen fertilizer applications on nutrient accumulation,translocation and distribution of rice in sa-line-alkali soil
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Affiliation:

(1.College of Agronomy,Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University/Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation and Crop Germplasm Improvement Daqing Hei long jiang 163319;2.Agricultural Technology Extension Station of MudanjiangCity,Mudanjiang Hei long jiang 157000;3.Beidahuang Kenfeng Seed Industry Co.Ltd,Harbin Hei long jiang 150090)

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    摘要:

    为明确适合苏打盐碱地水稻增产和养分高效利用的氮肥运筹方式。以粳稻品种垦粳 7号为供试材料,于 2017~ 2018年,在大田条件下设置 5种氮肥运筹方式:不施氮肥(N0)、农民常规施氮(N1,N总量 150 kg/hm2,基肥∶蘖肥∶穗肥 =6∶3∶1)、平衡施氮(N2,N总量 150 kg/hm2,基肥∶蘖肥∶穗肥 =4∶3∶3)、减氮处理(N3,N总量 135 kg/hm2,基肥∶蘖肥∶穗肥 =4∶3∶3)、平衡氮肥前移(N4,N总量 150 kg/hm2,基肥∶蘖肥∶穗肥 =5∶3∶2),其中以 N1为对照。分别在齐穗期和成熟期测定植株氮、磷、钾含量,并分别计算氮、磷、钾积累量及转运量、转运贡献率,收获后测定实际产量。结果表明,与 N1相比,N2和 N3有利于提高水稻的实际产量,平均分别提高 14.23%和 5.64%,其中 N2与 N1间差异达显著水平,而 N4产量显著降低了 7.98%;N2和 N3提高了齐穗期和成熟期的叶片、茎鞘和穗部的氮、磷、钾养分积累量,且以 N2最高,与 N1间差异显著,同时,N2和 N3提高了齐穗至成熟期叶片和茎鞘氮、磷、钾养分转运量、转运率、转运贡献率以及穗部养分增加量,尤其N2叶片氮、磷、钾转运量以及叶片氮转运率平均分别显著提高了83.27%、71.33%、74.54%和20.26%,而 N4表现出与 N2和 N3相反的趋势。此外,水稻产量与成熟期叶片、茎鞘和穗部的氮、磷、钾养分积累量以及养分转运贡献率均呈极显著正相关,且各养分转运贡献率间存在协同性。综上所述,平衡施氮和减氮处理能提高水稻齐穗期和成熟期植株氮、磷、钾养分积累量,促进齐穗至成熟期养分的转运,利于苏打盐碱地水稻增产及对养分的高效利用。

    Abstract:

    In order to clarify the suitable nitrogen fertilizer operation method for increasing rice yield and imprving nutrient efficient use in saline-alkali soil,field experiments were conducted from 2017 tO2018,the japonica rice variety kenjingNo.7 was selected as the test material.Five kinds of nitrogen fertilizer applications were setup,namely no nitrogen fertilizer(N0),farmers’conventional nitrogenapplication(N1,the total amount of N was 150 kg/hm2,basefertilizer ∶ tillering fertilizer ∶ panicle fertilizer=6∶3∶1),balanced nitrogen application(N2,the total amount of N was 150 kg/hm2,base fertilizer ∶ tillering fertilizer ∶ panicle fertilizer=5∶3∶3),nitrogen reductiontreatment(N3,the total amount of N was 135 kg/hm2,base fertilizer∶tillering fertilizer∶panicle fertilizer=4∶3∶3),and advanced balancednitrogen(N4,the total amount of N was 150 kg/hm2,base fertilizer ∶ tilleringfertilizer ∶ panicle fertilizer=5 ∶ 3 ∶2).Amongthem,N1 was used ascontrol.N,P and K contents were measured atheading and maturity stages,respectively,and accumulations and transports ofnitrogen,phosphorus and potassium,transporting contribution rates and actual yields were calculated afterharvesting.Results showedthat,compared withN1,N2 and N3 were beneficial to increase the yield of rice,with an average increase of 14.23% and5.64%,especially thedifference between N2 and N1 wassignificant,while the N4 yield was significantly reduced by7.98%.N2 and N3 increasedthe accumulation ofN,P and K inleaves,stems and sheaths at the heading and maturitystages,and the difference betweenN2 and N1 was significant.At the same time,N2 and N3 increasedN,P and K nutrient transport,translocation rate,transport contribution rate and nutrient increase in leaves and stem sheaths from the head to the maturitystage.Inparticular,theN,P and K transporter and leaf nitrogen transport rate of leaves under N2 treatment increased significantly by83.27%,71.33%,74.54% and20.26%,respectively,while N4 showed the oppositetrend.Inaddition,there was a significantly positive correlation between rice yield andN,P and K accumulation and nutrient transport contribution rate inleaves,stemsand sheaths atmaturity,and there was synergy among nutrient transportrates.Insummary,balanced nitrogen applicationand nitrogen reduction treatment can increase the accumulation ofN,P and K in rice at heading stage and maturitystage,and promote the transport of nutrients from head tomaturity,which were beneficial to the increase rice yield and efficient use of nutrients in saline-alkali soil.

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姜红芳,兰宇辰,王鹤璎,徐令旗,李猛,赵洋,李晓蕾,刘旭莹,吕艳东,郭晓红.氮肥运筹对苏打盐碱地水稻养分积累、转运及分配的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):45-55.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-09-10
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  • 录用日期:2019-11-24
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06