不同滴灌施肥量对沙地玉米氮效率及硝态氮的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院,陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,陕西 杨凌 712100;3.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所,陕西 杨凌 712100)

作者简介:

李娟娟(1993-),女,甘肃天水人,硕士,主要从事水土资源高效利用方面的研究,E-mail:lijuanjuangq@163.com;并列第一作者李利敏(1977-),女,河南济源人,实验师,博士,主要从事植物铁营养及铁肥开发研究,E-mail:liliminamy@163.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:山地果园水肥协同与设施农业沼液灌溉技术创新研究与示范(2018CXY-14);沙地枸杞滴灌水肥一体化技术研究与示范。


Effects of different fertilization by drip irrigation on nitrogen efficiency and nitrate nitrogen in sandy land
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(1.College of Water Resources & Architectural Engineering,Northwest A & FUniversity,Yangling Shaanxi 712100;2.College of Resources &Environment,Northwest A & FUniversity Yang ling Shaanxi 712100;3.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Northwest A & FUniversity,Yangling Shaanxi 712100)

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    摘要:

    探索沙地春玉米最佳滴灌施肥方案是提高其生育期氮积累和氮效率的有效途径。试验采用三因素 D饱和最优设计,研究拔节期、抽雄期和收获期玉米产量、生育期植株不同器官氮积累和硝态氮含量的差异,结果表明:(1)随着玉米生育期推进,整株氮积累逐渐增加,叶片、茎下降,籽粒增加,高氮处理(氮肥 240 kg·hm -2)显著高于其他处理;(2)N 3P1K3处理产量最高(13 875 kg·hm -2),氮素转运量和营养器官贡献率显著高于其它处理,氮收获指数和氮肥偏生产力较低;(3)土壤硝态氮含量随植株生长吸收逐渐降低,以滴头处 0~ 20 cm硝态氮含量最高,20~ 60 cm逐渐降低;(4)不同施氮处理的硝态氮含量有差异,拔节期施肥处理均与 CK差异显著,抽雄期和收获期中氮处理和高氮处理对硝态氮影响显著。高氮处理中土壤 0~ 60 cm硝态氮含量与播前基本一致,维持了土壤硝态氮的平衡。综合考虑产量、氮效率及土壤硝态氮平衡方面的因素,膜下滴灌条件下,陕北风沙滩-2-2-2地玉米合理的施肥为 N 3P1K3处理,即施氮肥 240 kg·hm

    Abstract:

    It is an effective way to improve nitrogen accumulation of maize and nitrogen use efficiency by exploring theoptimum drip irrigation and fertilization scheme.In this paper,maize yield,nitrogen use efficiency and nitrate nitrogencontent of different organs were studied in jointing stage,tasseling stage and harvest stage by using the three -factor D-saturatedoptimal design.The results showed:(1)With the maizegrowth,the nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant and grainincreasedgradually,while that of the leaves and stemsdecreased.The nitrogen accumulation in the high nitrogentreatment, which applied with N 240 kg·hm-2nitrogenfertilizer,was significantly higher than the othertreatments;(2)The maize yield of N3P1K3treatment was thehighest(13 875 kg·hm -2),nitrogen transport and vegetative organ contribution rate weresignificantly higher than othertreatments,and nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen fertilizer partial productivity werelower;(3)The soil nitrate nitrogen content decreased gradually with the growth of theplant.The nitrate content of 0 ~ 20 cmdepth at the dripper was thehighest,and it decreased gradually in 20~ 60 cmdepth;(4)The contents of nitrate nitrogenin different nitrogen treatments weredifferent,and the fertilization treatment at jointing stage was significantly different fromCK.Nitrogen treatment and high nitrogen treatment had significant effects on nitrate nitrogen during tasseling and harvestingstages.The content of soil nitrate nitrogen in 0~ 60 cm depth for the high nitrogen treatment was basically the same as thatbeforesowing,and the balance of soil nitrate nitrogen wasmaintained.Considering the factors ofyield,nitrogen efficiencyand soil nitrate nitrogenbalance,under the condition of drip irrigation under thefilm,the reasonable fertilization of maize in the sandy land of northern Shaanxi is treated with N3P1K3treatment,namely,nitrogen fertilizer 240 kg·hm -2,phosphate fertilizer 80 kg·hm-2,and potassium fertilizer 225 kg·hm-2.

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李娟娟,李利敏,马理辉.不同滴灌施肥量对沙地玉米氮效率及硝态氮的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):56-63.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-07-31
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  • 录用日期:2019-11-24
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06