长期定位施肥对潮土磷素下移及有效磷生态阈值的研究
作者:
作者单位:

(1.河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所,河南 郑州 450002;2.郑州大学农学院,河南 郑州 450006)

作者简介:

张珂珂(1988-),女,河南商丘市人,硕士研究生,主要从事土壤学研究。 E-mail: zhangke0108@sina.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200109, 2016YFD0300809,2017YFD0301103); 青年科学基金(31801261)。


Study on transfer of phosphorus and threshold values of available phosphorus in fluvo-aquic soil under long term fertilization
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(1.Institute of Plant Nutrient and Environmental Resources,Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,ZhengzhouHenan450002;2.College ofAgronomy,ZhengzhouUniversity,Zhengzhou Henan450006)

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    摘要:

    研究长期施肥条件下磷素下移情况及其与 0~ 20 cm土层有效磷含量的关系,明确有效磷生态阈值对作物产量和农业生态安全有重要的意义。试验基于“国家潮土土壤肥力与肥料效益长期监测站”30年定位试验,选取 5个处理,即不施磷肥(NK)、施用氮磷钾化肥(NPK)、氮磷钾化肥和有机肥配施(MNPK)、MNPK处理施肥量的 1.5倍(1.5NPKM)、氮磷钾化肥与玉米秸秆还田配施(SNPK),采集 0~20、20~40、40~60、60~80、80~ 100 cm土壤样品,分析有效磷含量,研究土壤有效磷垂直变化,并分析 0~ 20 cm土层有效磷含量与磷素下移关系。结果表明,长期施用磷肥可提高有效磷含量,施磷量越高,有效磷含量增加越快;0~ 20 cm土层有效磷含量 15.7~ 24.7mg/kg,磷素下移慢,可下移到 40~ 60 cm土层;而有效磷含量大于 55.6 mg/kg时,磷素下移速度显著增加,下移到 60~ 80 cm土层,并且下移量更大。综上,磷素下移的深度受耕层有效磷含量的影响,潮土区土壤有效磷生态阈值为 25mg/kg,既满足作物高产对养分的需要,又不对生态环境造成危害。0~ 20 cm土层有效磷含量为 15~ 25 mg/kg时,控制磷的投入量;当 0~ 20 cm土层有效磷含量超出 25mg/kg,减少磷的投入。

    Abstract:

    The study examined the relation of the moving down phosphorus with the available phosphorus in 0~ 20 cm layer under long-term fertilization,helping to clarify the safe threshold level of available phosphorus to maintain yield andthe ecological security of agriculture.This study was based on a 30 year fertilization experiment on“National Long -term Monitoring Station of Fluvo-aquic Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects”.Five fertilization treatments wereinvestigated:NK,NPK,NPK plus farmyard manure(MNPK),1.5 times of application rates ofN,P,K plus farmyard manure(1.5 MNPK)andN,P,K plus maize straw(SNPK).The contents of soil available P was analyzed for every 20 cmdeep of soil.The relationship between soil available phosphorus and the downshift of phosphorus was also analyzed.Theresults indicated that long term application of P fertilizer increased the content of soil availablephosphorus,and availablephosphorus in soil increased significantly with the increase rate of the phosphorusinput.When the available phosphorus inthe 0~ 20 cm soil layer was 15.7 mg/kg to 24.7mg/kg,the transportation of soil phosphorus in the vertical direction was slowand could reach 40~ 60 cm soildepth.When it was higher than 55.6mg/kg,the downward moving phosphorus was fasterwith moreamount,and could reach 60~ 80 cm soillayer.Insummary,the safe threshold level of available phosphorus is 25 mg/kg in the typical fluvo-aquicsoil,which is important to both stable yield and ecological security.The application rateof phosphorus fertilizer should be controlled when available phosphorus amount in the 0~ 20 cm layer is between 25mg/kg, but it should be decreased when it exceeds 25 mg/kg.

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张珂珂,黄绍敏,郭斗斗,宋晓,岳克,张水清,黄晨晨.长期定位施肥对潮土磷素下移及有效磷生态阈值的研究[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):64-69.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-08-29
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-10-13
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06