不同培肥措施对河套灌区盐碱地改良效果
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作者单位:

(1.内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;2.内蒙古自治区农牧业科学院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010031;3.内蒙古自治区土壤质量与养分资源重点实验室,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011;4.杭锦后旗农牧业技术推广中心,内蒙古 陕坝 015400)

作者简介:

王庆蒙(1995-),男,内蒙古包头市人,在读硕士,研究方向为土壤改良。E-mail:332783171@qq.com。

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基金项目:中央引导地方科技发展基金(2020ZY0016);内蒙古自然基金项目(2017MS0313);内蒙古农牧业创新基金(2018CXJJNO3、2020CXJJN06);内蒙古自治区重大专项(2019ZD009);内蒙古农牧业科学院青年创新基金(2018QNJJN10);国家自然科学基金项目(41501578)。


Effect of different fertilizer regime on the improvement of saline-alkali soil in Hetao Irrigation District
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(1.College ofGrassland,Resources andEnviroment,Inner Mongolia AgriculturalUnversity,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010011;2.Inner Mongolia Academy of Agriculture and Animal HusbandrySciences,Hohhot Inner Mongolia010031;3.Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Soil Quality and Nutrient Resources,Hohhot InnerMongolia010011;4.Hangjinhouqi Agricultural Technology PromotionCenter,Bayannur Inner Mongolia015400)

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    摘要:

    为了研究不同培肥措施对盐碱化土壤改良效果,以内蒙古河套灌区盐碱地为对象,通过 3年田间试验,研究了等氮素条件下不同培肥措施对土壤 pH值、全盐、脱盐率、有机质、全氮、碱解氮、有效磷等指标的影响。结果表明:不同培肥措施土壤剖面盐分变化趋势基本一致,即 0~ 20 cm降低,20~ 60 cm升高,60~100 cm稳定,其中CK、化肥处理表层土壤(0~20 cm)盐分含量最高,收获期土壤盐分分别为5.33和5.24 g·kg-1;秸秆还田、秸秆还田 +有机肥、秸秆还田 +有机肥 +化肥配施处理盐分含量最低,收获期土壤盐分分别为5.0、4.58、4.73 g·kg -1。不同培肥措施 0~10、10~ 20 cm土壤脱盐率分别为 7.81%~20.70%、4.48%~16.96%,其中有机肥、秸秆还田与有机肥、秸秆还田 +有机肥 +化肥配施对促进盐分淋洗、抑制反盐的效果较好,土壤脱盐率分别为11.99%、18.83%、15.65%,以 CK和单施化肥处理效果最差,分别为5.74%、6.37%。作物生育期内,不同培肥措施的土壤 pH值变化差异不显著,但连续施用有机肥、有机肥 +秸秆以及有机肥 +秸秆还田 +化肥配施耕层土壤 pH值较 CK处理降幅较大。与 CK相比,不同培肥措施均显著提高耕层土壤碱解氮、有效磷的含量( P <0.05),其含量分别提高 29.43%~93.14%、17.45%~161.84%;有机肥、有机肥与化肥配施显著提高了土壤有机质和全氮的含量,分别为14.66%、13.36%和13.36%、17.35%。有机肥、秸秆还田、化肥三者配施均能显著提高向日葵产量,其中有机肥 +秸秆还田 +化肥处理对向日葵产量提高的最为显著,较CK增产 44.41%。因此,在等氮素条件下,河套灌区应重视有机肥与化肥、有机肥与秸秆还田、有机肥与秸秆还田 +化肥的配合施用,不仅可以培肥土壤、提高脱盐率,还可获得一定的高产。

    Abstract:

    The effects of different fertilization on the properties of saline soil were studied in Hetao plain in western InnerMongolia from 2016 tO2018.SoilpH,totalsalt,desalinationrate,organicmatter,totalnitrogen,available nitrogen andavailable phosphorus were measured during the growth of sunflowers.The results showed that the dynamic change of soilsalt in different soil profiles presented same trend in different fertilizationmeasures,which was decreased in 0~20cm,increased in 20~ 60cm,and showed stable in 60~ 100cm.The treatments of nofertilizer(CK)and chemical fertilizer(T1)resulted in the highest salt content intopsoil(0~20cm),which were 5.33 and 5.24 g·kg -1,respectively.Thesoil salt contents were5.00,4.58,and 4.73 g·kg -1,respectively,for treatments of straw(T3),straw+organic(T5)and straw+organic+fertilizer(T7).The soil desalination rates were 7.81%~ 20.70% in 0~10cm,and 4.48%~ 16.96% in 10~20 cm.The soil desalination rates were significantly higher in T2(11.99%),T5(18.83%),T7(15.65%)comparing toCK(5.74%)andT1(6.37%).The soil pH was not significantly different amongtreatments.But the soil pHof the topsoil was lower inT2,T5,T7 treatments than that in CK under 3 years long -termapplication.Available nitrogenand available phosphorus significantly increased by 29.43%~ 93.14% and 17.45%~161.84%,respectively,comparingto CK( P<0.05).Soil organic matter and total nitrogen only increased under T2 and T4 by 13.36%~ 14.66% and13.26%~17.35%,respectively.Partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with manure and stalk significantly increased theyield of sunflower by 44.41% comparing toCK.Therefore,partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with manure or stalk is a better management in saline-alkalisoil,which not only improve soil nutrientcondition,increase desalinationrate,but alsoincrease the yield ofsunflower.

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王庆蒙,景宇鹏,李跃进,赵举,张雅贞,李秀萍,李焕春,刘宇杰,白勇兴.不同培肥措施对河套灌区盐碱地改良效果[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):124-131.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-08-30
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-11-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06