有机肥替代化肥对土壤养分动态及甜玉米生产的影响
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(中国农业大学土地科学与技术学院,农业农村部华北耕地保育实验室,北京 100193)

作者简介:

王琛(1995-),男,山东省肥城市人,硕士在读,研究方向为有机肥替代化肥效果及有机废弃物处理。E-mail:602722828@qq.com。

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基金项目:“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD14B03)。


Effects of organic fertilizer substitution on soil nutrients dynamics and production of sweet corn
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(College of Land and Technology,China AgriculturalUniversity,Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation(North China),Ministry of Agriculture Rural Affairs,Beijing100193)

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    摘要:

    有机肥替代化肥在甜玉米生产中是一项重要举措,明确其对土壤养分供应和甜玉米产量与品质的影响具有重要意义,本研究旨在通过田间试验为甜玉米生产中实施有机肥替代化肥行动提供实验依据。试验共设 4个处理,分别为① 100%化肥(代号N10)、② 70%化肥 N+30%有机肥N(代号N7)、③ 40%化肥 N+60%有机肥 N(代号 N4)和④ 100%有机肥 N(代号 N0),测定指标包括 2次表层土壤养分(无机 N、有效 P、速效 K、土壤微生物量 C、N)、植株生长状况(株高、叶绿素值、干物质量)和收获期甜玉米产量与品质指标,分析讨论有机肥替代对土壤 N素供应、甜玉米产量和品质及甜玉米茎叶作为青储饲料的影响,得到以下结果:(1)在大喇叭口期,60%~ 100%有机肥替代显著降低表层土壤无机 N的供应水平,提高土壤微生物量 C、N水平和旗叶 N含量;(2)在收获期,60%~ 100%有机肥替代显著提高土壤微生物量 C和 C/N,显著提高旗叶叶绿素和 N含量及整株N含量;(3)有机肥替代对甜玉米果穗产量有所影响,但对果穗品质无显著影响;(4)60%有机肥替代显著提高甜玉米植株的 N含量,其茎叶品质符合青储饲料的质量要求。对于生长期短、N素需求强度大的甜玉米而言,有机肥替代化肥如何影响土壤 N素的供应过程,尚需进一步研究。

    Abstract:

    Organic FertilizerSubstitute(OFS)is one of the important ways in the production of sweetcorn.It is significantto clarify the effects of OFS on soil nutrient supply and yield and quality of sweetcorn.The purpose of this study is,byfieldexperiment,to provide experimental basis for OFS in the sweet cornproduction.Four treatments weredesigned,(1)100% chemical fertilizerN(codeN10),(2)70% chemical fertilizer N + 30% organic fertilizerN(codeN7),(3)40% chemical fertilizer N + 60% organic fertilizerN(codeN4),and(4)100% organic fertilizerN(codeN0).Duringthe growth season,soil nutrients in the surfacelayer(soil mineralN,available P andK,soil microbial biomass C and)and plant growth parameters(plantheight,SPAD,dry mass accumulation)were measuredtwice.At harvest,yieldand quality of sweet corn and indicators as silage of leaves and stems weremeasured.The effects of OFS on soil N.nutrientsupply,yield and quality of sweetcorn,and silage indicators of fresh biomass were discussed.The results showedthat,(1)at flared stage,60%~100% OFS significantly reduced the supply level of mineralN,but increased soil microbialbiomass C and N level in the surfacelayer,and significantly increased the N content of the flag leaves;(2)at harvest,60%~ 100% OFS significantly increased soil microbial biomass C and C/N ration in the surfacelayer,the SPAD values andN content of the flagleaves,and N content of the wholeplant;(3)OFS had some impact on yield of sweetcorn,but noimpact on quality of sweetcorn;(4)60% OFS improved the crude protein content in the wholeplant.The harvested leavesand stems could be used assilage.For the short growing season and intensive requirement of soil nutrient of sweetcorn,theimpact of OFS on the soil N supply process needs more attention tostudy.

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王琛,林启美,赵小蓉,李贵桐.有机肥替代化肥对土壤养分动态及甜玉米生产的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):132-140.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-09-04
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-10-13
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06