长期秸秆配施化肥对土壤养分及小麦产量、品质的影响
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作者单位:

(1.首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048;2.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京 100081;3.黑龙江省农业科学院,黑河分院国家土壤质量爱辉观测试验站,黑龙江 黑河 164300;4.东北农业大学资源与环境学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030)

作者简介:

房静静(1995-),女,宁夏固原人,硕士研究生,主要从事农田土壤养分研究。E-mail:837430785@qq.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0200408、2016YFD0300804);国家科技支撑计划课题(2015BAD22B03);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132019033)。


Effects of long-term straw and fertilizer combined application on soil nutrient,wheat yield and quality
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Affiliation:

(1.College of Resource Environmentand Tourism,Capital Normal University,Beijing100048;2.Institute of Agricultural Resource and Regional Planning,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences,Beijing100081;3.Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences HeiheBranch National Soil Quality Aihui Observation and TestingStation,Heihe Heilongjiang164300;4.College of Resourcesand EnvironmentalSciences,Northeast AgriculturalUniversity,Harbin Heilongjiang150030)

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    摘要:

    以 40年长期定位试验为平台,系统分析了不同施肥处理对暗棕壤土壤碳氮磷含量和小麦产量及品质的影响,为探讨长期施用秸秆条件下土壤肥力演变规律提供理论依据。试验设 4个处理,分别为单施化肥(NP)、秸秆配施化肥(S+NP)、秸秆配施 1/2化肥(S+1/2NP)、秸秆配施 1/4化肥(S+1/4NP),其中秸秆为隔年麦秸还田,用量为 3 000 kg/hm2,化肥 N、P用量为 N 150 kg/hm2、P2O5 150 kg/hm2。结果表明:1)与 NP处理相比,秸秆配施化肥处理(S+NP)显著增加了 0~ 20 cm土壤有机碳含量和有效磷含量;秸秆还田条件下,S+1/2NP和 S+1/4NP处理 0~20 cm土壤中碳氮磷含量均低于 S+NP处理,而对于 20~ 40、40~ 60 cm土层养分含量差异表现不一致。2)不同施肥处理对春小麦产量及其构成因素有显著的影响,各施肥处理综合表现为:S+NP>NP>S+1/2NP>S+1/4NP,即以 S+NP处理春小麦产量最高;不同施肥处理对春小麦籽粒容重、蛋白质含量、湿面筋含量、吸水率、延伸率和拉伸面积等品质指标影响不显著。综合分析各处理,结果表明:S+NP处理(即在秸秆还田条件下,施用 N 150 kg/hm2、P2O5 150 kg/hm2)相对其他处理,其保障小麦产量和提升(或维持)土壤肥力的效果最佳。

    Abstract:

    Based on a 40-year long-termexperiment,the effects of different fertilization treatments on the contents ofcarbon,nitrogen,and phosphorus in black brownsoil,and wheat yield and quality are systematicallyanalyzed,to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the evolution of soil fertility under long-term application of straw. The experiment is conductedwith 4treatments:pure chemical fertilizer(NP),straw with chemical fertilizer(S+NP),straw with 1/2 chemical fertilizer(S+1/2NP),and straw with 1/4 chemical fertilizer(S+1/4NP),of which straw is returned from the last year wheatfield,the amount is 3 000 kg/hm2,chemical fertilizer NP is pure N 150 kg/hm2,P2O5 150 kg/hm2. The results showthat:1)compared with NP treatment,S+NP treatment significantly increases the organic carbon content,and available phosphorus content of 0~20 cm soil. Under S+1/2NP and S+1/4NPtreatments,the contents ofcarbon,nitrogen andphosphorus in the 0~ 20 cm are lower than those of S+NPtreatment,while the difference in nutrient content of 20~ 40and 40~ 60 cm soil layer is not significant.2)Different fertilization treatments have significant effects on spring wheat yieldand its component factors. The comprehensive performance of each fertilization treatment is asfollows:S+NP> NP> S+1/2NP>S+1/4NP,thatis,the highest yield of spring wheat grain withS+NP;different fertilization treatments have no significanteffects on quality indicators such as bulk density,protein content,wet gluten content,water absorption,elongation and stretch area of spring wheat. Comprehensive analysis of the processing result to S+NP treatment under the condition of strawreturned,thatis,under the condition of strawreturn,the application of pure N 150 kg/hm2,P2O5 150 kg/hm2,comparedwith othertreatments,has the best effect of maintaining wheat yield and alleviating the decline of soil fertility.

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房静静,丁维婷,武雪萍,李晓秀,姜宇,张继宗,刘晓彤,奚雅静,郑凤君,张孟妮,米刚,马献发.长期秸秆配施化肥对土壤养分及小麦产量、品质的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):141-146.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-04-13
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  • 录用日期:2020-05-01
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06