功能微生物与生物炭对海滨锦葵生长及滨海盐土地力的影响
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(中华全国供销合作总社南京野生植物综合利用研究所,江苏 南京 211111)

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赵飞(1982-),女,山东省烟台市人,助理研究员,博士,从事微生物多样性及其生态功能评价研究。E-mail:f_zhao@163.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划“河口湿地盐生生物资源的开发利用与产业化”(2017YFC0506005);江苏省第五期“333高层次人才培养工程”科研项目资助计划“有机伴侣技术研究”(367)。


Effects of functional microorganisms and biochar on the growth of seashore mallow and its rhizosphere soil fertility in coastal saline soil
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(Nanjing Institute for Comprehensive Utilization of WildPlants,China CO -OP,Nanjing Jiangsu211111)

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    摘要:

    为实现盐碱地的长效生态改良与可持续性发展,研究了盐碱胁迫条件下生物炭与功能微生物对滨海盐土养分含量及盐生植物海滨锦葵生长的影响。利用室内盆栽试验,在盐碱胁迫条件下设置了单独接种功能微生物丛枝菌根真菌(arbuscular mycorrhizafungi,AMF)、解磷真菌( Apophysomyces sp.SM-1)、单独添加生物炭(Bio-char,BC)及 3者联合接种等共计 8个处理对滨海盐土部分养分指标及盐生植物海滨锦葵生长的影响。结果表明,功能微生物和生物炭均能够显著影响滨海盐土改良的进程及海滨锦葵的生长。在土壤 pH值方面,功能微生物和生物炭均能促进盐土降低 pH值,其中 AMF与 BC联合施用处理的土壤 pH值最低,而 BC处理土壤 pH相对较高。在土壤含水量方面,除 AMF、SM-1及 BC联合施用处理之外,其他处理均能不同幅度地提升盐土含水量,其中接种 SM-1处理中土壤含水量的提升效果较为显著,较对照组提高了 90.7%。在土壤养分含量方面,BC能够显著提升土壤有机碳、碱解氮和有效磷含量,AMF及 SM-1单独接种时对土壤有机碳、碱解氮和有效磷含量有一定的提升作用,但效果并不显著。AMF与 SM-1混合接种对土壤有效磷含量的提升效果优于 BC处理,较对照增加了 17.99%。AMF、SM-1与 BC三者联用对土壤有机碳、碱解氮和有效磷含量的提升效果最佳,分别比对照增加了58.33%、4.83%及23.09%。同时在盐土中接种AMF、SM-1以及添加 BC可明显提高海滨锦葵植株的株高、主根长、主根粗以及植株干重,其中 AMF和 SM-1对盐碱胁迫下海滨锦葵的促生效果优于生物炭,而 BC更有助于海滨锦葵植株干物质的积累。因此,室内盆栽试验条件下,AMF、SM-1和 BC均能影响滨海盐土的理化性质及海滨锦葵的生物量,BC对盐土地力提升的效果较好,而 AMF及 SM-1则对耐盐植物的促生效果更佳,并且三者联合施用可积极推动滨海盐土改良,促进盐生植物生长。

    Abstract:

    In order to achieve long-term ecological improvement and sustainable development of saline-alkali soil,the effects of biochar and functional microbes on the nutrient contents of coastal saline soil and the growth of halophyte mallow were studied under salt-alkali stress. We conducted a greenhouse experiment(8 treatments)to study the effects of biochar(BC),arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi(AMF)and phosphate solubilizing fungi( Apophysomyces sp. SM-1)on the coastal saline soil nutrient indicators and the growth of the halophyte seashore mallow under salt-alkali stress conditions. The results of the pot experiment showed that both functional microbes and biochar significantly affected the progress of coastal saline soilimprovement and the growth of seashore mallow. In terms of soilpH,both functional microbes and biochar promoted coastalmallow to reduce the pH value of coastal saline soil. The combination of AMF and biochar had the lowest pHvalue,while thesoil pH of BC treatment was relatively high. In terms of soil watercontent,except for the combined application of AMF,SM -1andbiochar,other treatments increased the water content of coastal saline soil in different degrees,and the effect of soil water content in the treatment of SM-1 was moresignificant,which was 90.7% higher than that of the control group. In termsof soil nutrientcontent,biochar significantly increased soil organiccarbon,available nitrogen and available phosphorus. AMF and SM-1 had a certain effect on the promotion of soil organiccarbon,available nitrogen and available phosphorus when inoculated alone. The effect of AMF and SM-1 mixed inoculation on soil organic carbon and available nitrogen content wascomparable to those of biocharalone,and the combined effect of AMF and SM -1 on soil available phosphorus was better thanthat ofbiochar,which was 17.99% higher than the control. The combination ofAMF,SM -1 and BC had the best promotionon soil organiccarbon,available nitrogen and availablephosphorus,which increased by58.33%,4.83% and23.09%,respectively. At the sametime,AMF,SM -1 and biochar significantly increased the plantheight,main rootlength,main root thickness and dry weight of the plant. AMF and SM-1 had better growth promoting effect on seashore mallow than biochar under salt-alkalistress,while biochar contributed to the accumulation of dry matter in plants.Therefore,under theconditions of houseplant experiment,AMF,phosphate -dissolving fungi and biochar could affect the physical and chemical properties of coastal saline soil and the biomass of seashore mallow. The effect of biochar on the improvement of coastal saline soil fertility was better. AMF and phosphate-dissolving fungi had better growth-promoting effects on seashore mallowplants, and the combined application of the three factors had positively promotion of the improvement of coastal saline soil and the growth of salt-tolerant plants.

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赵飞,刘畅,朱昌玲,张焕仕.功能微生物与生物炭对海滨锦葵生长及滨海盐土地力的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):161-168.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-09-04
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-10-26
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06