叶面补铁对喀斯特土壤小白菜生长、土壤养分及微生物的影响
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(土壤多尺度界面过程与调控重点实验室,西南大学资源环境学院,重庆400715)

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冯密(1996-),男,四川邻水人,硕士研究生,研究方向为土壤肥力与生态。E-mail:183773603@qq.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502303)。


Effects of foliar iron fertilizer on growth,soil nutrients and microbial diversity of cabbage in karst area
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(Chongqing Key Laboratory of Soil Multi-scale InterfacialProcess,College of Resources andEnvironment,SouthwestUniversity,Chongqing 400715)

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    摘要:

    为探究喷施铁肥对喀斯特地区石灰性土壤上蔬菜生长以及微生物多样性的影响,利用盆栽试验,清水作为对照(CK),研究了 0.05%硫酸亚铁(Y0)和有机铁肥(浓度梯度分别为0.05%、0.03%、0.025%、0.02%,记为 Y1、Y2、Y3、Y4)对小白菜生物量、叶片抗氧化酶、土壤养分及微生物的影响,结果表明:0.05%硫酸亚铁对小白菜的地上部生物量具有抑制作用,比对照减少了 14.16%,有机铁肥对小白菜的生物量表现出不同程度的促进,且 Y3、Y4处理增加显著,分别比对照增加了 54.26%和 57.86%。与对照相比,有机铁肥不同程度增加了叶片抗氧化酶活性,其中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)影响最大。除 Y3、Y4处理外,其余处理均增加了丙二醛(MDA)含量。随有机铁肥浓度的减小,土壤碱解氮、有效磷及速效钾含量均呈下降趋势,而有机质呈上升趋势,土壤养分在 Y4处理时有显著差异。Y4处理细菌、真菌及放线菌数量最高,分别为 4.27、0.85和 0.39 nmol·g -1,Y1处理最低,分别为1.18、0.20和 0.12 nmol·g -1。主成分分析表明,硫酸亚铁处理和有机铁肥处理之间土壤微生物群落结构有明显差异,Y0处理相对提高了革兰氏阴性菌(16∶1ω9c,18∶1ω7c)与放线菌(10Me17∶0,10Me18∶0)的丰度,Y3、Y4处理相对提高了革兰氏阳性菌(a17∶0,i18∶0)的丰度。通过对产量与多个因素的相关分析,结果表明小白菜产量与丙二醛呈显著负相关关系,与速效钾含量呈极显著负相关关系,而与土壤有机质含量呈显著正相关关系,但与不同微生物之间无显著相关性。综合比较,喷施 0.02%有机铁肥对喀斯特地区小白菜产量及微生物多样性具有最佳效果,研究成果可为喀斯特岩溶地区生态农业发展提供参考。

    Abstract:

    To discuss the effects of spraying iron fertilizer on vegetable growth and microbial diversity in karstareas,a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different iron fertilizers onbiomass,leaf antioxidantenzymes,soil nutrients and microbes ofcabbage.The experiment consisted of six different treatments,includingwater(CK),ferrous sulfate with 0.05%Fe(Y0)and different organic iron fertilizer with0.05%,0.03%,0.025% and 0.02%Fe(marked asY1,Y2,Y3andY4).The results showed that 0.05% FeSO 4reduced the aboveground biomass ofcabbage,which was 14.16% less thanthecontrol.Organic iron fertilizer promoted the growth ofcabbage,Y3 and Y4 treatments significantly increased biomassby 54.26% and57.86%,respectively.Compared withCK,organic iron fertilizer increased or significantly increasedleaf antioxidant enzyme activity.While,SOD had the most obvious change.Y3 and Y4 reduced the malondialdehyde(MDA)content,while the other treatments increased MDA.As the concentration of organic iron fertilizerdecreased,thecontents of soil alkaline nitrogen(AN),available phosphorus(AP)and available potassium(AK)reduced,while soilorganicmatter(SOM)increased.Soil nutrients had significantly difference in Y4 compared withCK.Y4 showed thehighest amount ofbacteria(4.27 nmol·g -1),fungi(0.85 nmol·g -1)andactinomycetes(0.39 nmol·g -1).However,Y1 showed the lowest amount ofbacteria(1.18 nmol·g -1),fungi(0.20 nmol·g -1)andactinomycetes(0.12 nmol·g -1).Principal componentanalysis(PCA)showed a significant difference in soil microbial community between ferrous sulfatetreatment and organic iron fertilizertreatment. Y0 treatment increased the multi-degree value of Gram-negative bacteria(16∶1ω9c,18∶1ω7c)andactinomycetes(10Me17∶0,10Me18∶0),Y3 and Y4 treatments increased the multi -degree value of Gram-positivebacteria(a17∶0,i18∶0).Pearson correlation analysis of yield and multiple factors indicated that yieldwas significantly negatively correlated with MDA( P<0.05)andAK( P<0.01).Additionally,there was a significant positivecorrelation between yield withSOM( P<0.05).However,there was no significant correlation between yield withmicroorganisms.In a comprehensivecomparison,0.02% organic iron fertilizer had the best effect on the cabbage yield and soil microbial diversity inkarstarea.The research can provide reference for the development of ecological agriculture in karstarea.

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冯密,向书迪,黄雪娇,杨裕然,程丹韵,李振轮.叶面补铁对喀斯特土壤小白菜生长、土壤养分及微生物的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(5):220-226.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-09-09
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-10-19
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-06