长期有机无机配施对暗棕壤土壤酶活性及春麦产量品质的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京 100081;2.黑龙江省农业科学院黑河分院,黑龙江 黑河 164300;3.首都师范大学,北京 100048;4.山西师范大学,山西 临汾 041004)

作者简介:

丁维婷(1994-),女,甘肃天水人,硕士研究生,主要从事农田土壤养分研究。E-mail:82101186079@caas.cn。通讯作者:武雪萍,E-mail:wuxueping@caas.cn;张继宗,E-mail:zhangjizong@caas.cn;姜宇,E-mail:hhnks2008@163.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0200408、2016YFD0300804);国家科技支撑计划课题(2015BAD22B03);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132019033)。


Effects of long-term organic-inorganic combined application on enzyme activity of dark brown soil and yield, quality of spring wheat
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Affiliation:

(1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing100081;2. Heihe Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of AgriculturalSciences,Heihe Heilongjiang164300;3. Capital Normal University,Beijing100048;4. Shanxi Normal University,Linfen Shanxi041004)

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    摘要:

    根据 41年长期施肥试验结果,研究有机无机配施对暗棕壤土壤肥力、春麦籽粒产量和品质的影响,探讨有机无机配施条件下土壤酶活性与作物产量、品质之间的内在关系,为建立科学合理的有机无机配施技术体系提供理论依据。长期定位试验于 1979年开展,位于黑龙江省黑河市农科院内,土壤类型为暗棕壤。设对照、低量化肥、中量化肥、高量化肥、有机肥、有机肥 +中量化肥 6个处理,于 2019年 8月采集土壤样品(0~ 20 cm)和小麦籽粒样品,测定分析了 5种土壤水解酶,即 β-葡萄糖苷酶、β-纤维二糖苷酶、乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶、酸性磷酸酶和亮氨酸氨基肽酶活性,研究暗棕壤酶活性、小麦籽粒产量和品质的变化规律,并进行相关性分析。研究结果表明:1)各处理相比较,单施有机肥、有机肥配施中量化肥 2个处理均显著提高了土壤 β-葡萄糖苷酶、β-纤维二糖苷酶、乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶、酸性磷酸酶和亮氨酸氨基肽酶活性,有机肥配施中量化肥处理较单施中量化肥处理土壤酶活性提高了 21.04%~ 95.74%。2)不同施肥处理小麦籽粒产量差异显著,各施肥处理小麦产量较对照增加了 6.93%~ 111.03%,以单施高量化肥、有机肥配施中量化肥 2个处理增产比例最高。3)小麦籽粒品质、面粉品质和面团品质均表现出一致性的规律,有机肥配施化肥处理的小麦综合品质均显著高于单施化肥处理。4)土壤酶活性与小麦籽粒品质、面粉品质和面团品质之间存在显著或极显著正相关关系,与小麦产量间呈正相关,但不显著。不同施肥处理下土壤酶活性、小麦产量和品质均存在显著差异,有机肥配施中量化肥处理对提高土壤酶活性、小麦产量和品质有明显的作用,有机肥与化肥的合理配施是提高土壤肥力并保障作物产量和品质的重要措施。

    Abstract:

    Based on the results of a 41-year long-term fertilization experiment,the effects of combined organic andinorganic applications on the fertility of dark brown soil and the yield and quality of spring wheat grains werestudied, and the relationship between soil enzyme activity and crop yield and quality under combined organic and inorganicapplication conditions wasanalyzed.The internal relationship provides a theoretical basis for the establishment of ascientific and reasonable organic and inorganic combined application technology system.The long -term positioningexperiment was carried out in 1979 and was located in Agricultural Academy in the Heihe City,Heilongjiang Province.The soil type was dark brownsoil.Six treatments were setup:control,low -quantityfertilizer,medium -quantityfertilizer,high -quantity fertilizer,organic fertilizer,organic fertilizer+medium -quantity fertilizer,soil samples(0~20cm)and wheat grain samples were collected in August2019.Five soil hydrolases,namely β -glucosidase, β-cellobiosidase,acetylglucosaminidase,acid phosphataseand leucine aminopeptidase enzyme activities were determinedand analyzed to study the changes of dark brown soil enzymeactivity,wheat grain yield andquality,and correlationanalysis wereconducted.Research indicatedthat:1)Compared with other treatments,the two treatments of single application of organic fertilizer and combined application of medium-quantitative fertilizer significantly improved soil β-glucosidase,β -cellobiosidase,acetylglucosaminidase,acid phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase,and the activity of organic fertilizer combined with medium-quantitative fertilizer treatment was increased by 21.04%~95.74%, compared with the single application of medium-quantitative fertilizertreatment.2)The grain yield of wheat under differentfertilization treatments was significantly different.After fertilization,the wheat yield increased by 6.93%~ 111.03%compared with thecontrol.The single treatment of high -quantitative fertilizer and organic fertilizer combined with medium-quantitative fertilizer in the two treatments had a higher yield increaseratio.3)The grainquality,flour quality and doughquality of wheat all showed a consistent pattern.The comprehensive quality of wheat with organic fertilizer and chemicalfertilizer treatment was significantly higher than that with single chemical fertilizertreatment.4)There was a significantor extremely significant positive correlation between soil enzyme activity and wheat grainquality,flour quality and doughquality,and a positive correlation with wheatyield,but not significant.Soil enzyme activity and wheat yield and qualityunder different fertilization treatments were significantlydifferent.In the combined application of organic fertilizers and medium-quantitative fertilizer treatment has an obvious effect on improving soil enzyme activity,wheat yield and quality. The rational combination of organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers is an important measure to improve soil fertility and obtain high-quality and high-yieldcrops.

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丁维婷,武雪萍,张继宗,姜宇,房静静,宋霄君,李婧妤,郑凤君,张孟妮,刘晓彤.长期有机无机配施对暗棕壤土壤酶活性及春麦产量品质的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):1-8.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-01-18
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  • 录用日期:2020-06-06
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21