生物炭对葡萄幼苗根际土壤养分、酶活性及微生物多样性的影响
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作者单位:

(1.石河子大学农学院,特色果蔬栽培生理与种质资源利用兵团重点实验室,新疆 石河子 832003;2.新疆农垦科学院林园研究所,新疆 石河子 832000)

作者简介:

何秀峰(1991-),女,甘肃会宁人,在读硕士研究生,主要从事果树学研究。E-mail:2675749029@qq.com。通讯作者:郁松林 ,E-mail:songlin8900@sina.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD1000200);国家自然科学基金项目(31760550)。


Effect of biochar on nutrient,enzyme activities and microbial diversity of rhizosphere soil of grape seedlings
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Affiliation:

(1.College ofAgronomy,Shihezi University,Key Laboratory of Characteristics of Fruit and Vegetable Cultivation and Utilization of GermplasmResources of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps,Shihezi Xinjiang832003;2. Institute of Horticulture,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural and ReclamationScience,Shihezi Xinjiang 832000)

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    摘要:

    以一年生“弗雷”葡萄幼苗为试验材料,采用盆栽试验,根据生物炭施用方式与炭土质量比,设置 5个处理,研究了生物炭不同施用方式及施用量对葡萄幼苗根际土壤养分、酶活性和微生物多样性的影响。结果表明:与不施生物炭(CK)相比,生物炭混施(HA、HB)和穴施(JA、JB)增加了土壤有机质、有效磷、速效钾含量及蔗糖酶、过氧化氢酶活性,但小幅度降低土壤容重和 pH。同一施用方式下,生物炭施用量越高土壤碱解氮、速效钾含量及蔗糖酶、过氧化氢酶活性越高;同一施用量下,混施处理土壤有机质和速效养分(碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾)含量及蔗糖酶、过氧化氢酶活性优于穴施处理,其中 HB(混施 5%生物炭)处理土壤有机质和速效养分含量及蔗糖酶、过氧化氢酶活性增加幅度最大,分别比 CK高73.7%、19.2%、42.3%、20.8%、10.5%、8.6%。土壤细菌 Alpha多样性分析表明 HB处理可以提高细菌丰度,但对细菌群落多样性影响甚微。穴施处理下硝化螺旋菌属菌群数量高于混施处理,而混施处理下节细菌属和假单胞菌属菌群数量高于穴施处理。UPGMA聚类分析及RDA冗余分析表明混施处理引起根际土壤微生物群落组成和结构发生较大变化,土壤碱解氮、有机质、速效钾及pH对细菌群落结构影响较大。综上,生物炭混施对葡萄幼苗根际土壤养分、酶活性及微生物多样性的影响优于穴施,其中 HB处理效果较优。

    Abstract:

    The objectives of this experiment were to study the effects of different application patterns and amounts of biocharonnutrient,enzyme activities and microbial diversity of rhizosphere soil of grape seedlings.The experiment was done by taking 1-year old“Frey”grape seedlings as test material in pot cultivation,and five treatments were set up according to thebiochar application pattern and different soil biochar contents.The results showed as follows:Compared with the control(CK),biochar mixed(HA,HB)and holeapplication(JA,JB)patterns increased the contents of rhizosphere soilorganic matter,available phosphorus,available potassium and invertase,catalase activities,but soil bulk density andpH were decreasedslightly.Under the same applicationpattern,the contents of rhizosphere soil alkali hydrolysisnitrogen,available potassium andinvertase,catalase activities increased with the increased of the application amount ofbiochar; underthe same applicationamount,the contents of rhizosphere soil organicmatter,availablenutrient(alkali hydrolysisnitrogen,available phosphorus,available potassium)andinvertase,catalase activities in mixed application pattern was higher thanthose of hole applicationpattern,and among the HBtreatment(mixed application of 5%biochar),the extent of increasingof rhizosphere soil organicmatter,available nutrientscontents,invertase and catalase activities were thelargest,whichwere73.7%,19.2%,42.3%,20.8%,10.5%,8.6% higher than that ofCK,respectively.Alpha diversity analysis of soilbacteria showed that HB treatment improved the abundance of bacterialcommunity.However,it had little effect on bacterialcommunitydiversity.The number of Nitrospirain hole application pattern was higher than that of mixed applicationpattern.However,the number of Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas in mixed application pattern was higher than that of hole applicationpattern.UPGMA clustering and RDA analysis indicated mixed application pattern had larger effects on microbial communitycomposition and structure of rhizosphere soil.The alkali hydrolysisnitrogen,organic matter,available potassium and pHhad great influences on the variations of bacterial communitystructure.Insummary,our results indicated that biochar mixedapplication pattern was better than hole application pattern to influence the rhizosphere soilnutrient,enzyme activities andmicrobialdiversity,amongthem,HB treatment was better.

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何秀峰,赵丰云,于坤,杨湘,王军武,郁松林.生物炭对葡萄幼苗根际土壤养分、酶活性及微生物多样性的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):19-26.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-09-18
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-11-02
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21