贵州核桃主产区核桃园土壤养分丰缺状况
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(贵州大学 /贵州省果树工程技术研究中心,贵州 贵阳 550025)

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宋斌(1995-),男,山东菏泽人,硕士研究生,主要从事果树生理生态与栽培方面的研究。E-mail:347822259@qq.com。通讯作者:潘学军,E-mail:pxjun2050@aliyun.com。

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基金项目:国家科技支撑计划课题(2014BAD23B03);贵州省高层次创新型人才培养项目[黔科合人才(2016)4038号]。


Status of soil fertility in walnut orchard areas of Guizhou
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(GuizhouEngineering Research Center for FruitCrops,GuizhouUniversity,Guiyang Guizhou550025)

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    摘要:

    研究贵州核桃主产区核桃园土壤养分丰缺状况,为核桃园的养分管理与合理施肥提供理论依据和科学指导。在贵州黔西北高海拔冷凉区、黔北高纬度冷凉区、黔西南、黔南地区高海拔区等核桃主产区共选择典型核桃园 126个,采集深度为 0~ 40 cm土层的土壤样品进行养分丰缺状况的测试分析。结果发现,有 73.0%核桃园土壤 pH适合核桃生长;有 88.2%的核桃园土壤有机质含量处于适宜及以上范围;土壤全氮、全磷含量丰富;土壤全钾有 22.2%处于缺乏(极缺)状态;有 7.9%的核桃园土壤碱解氮含量处于中等及以下水平;有效磷含量处于适宜及以上范围占 76.2%;速效钾含量较为缺乏,中等及以下水平比例占 81.8%;土壤中量元素交换性钙、镁含量均表现丰富,其中交换性钙没有出现低水平情况,交换性镁低水平比例仅占 8.7%;微量元素锰、铜含量较为丰富,但土壤有效硼含量较低,处于中下及以下水平的比例高达 99.2%,有效铁与有效锌中下及以下水平比例分别为 45.2%和 8.8%。黔西南高海拔地区核桃园土壤养分缺乏最严重,其次是黔北高纬度冷凉区、黔西北高海拔冷凉区和黔南高海拔地区。结果的核桃园中土壤碱解氮、有效锌含量缺乏程度重于未结果园,而速效钾含量缺乏程度轻于未结果园。总体来看,贵州核桃主产区核桃园土壤 pH值普遍适合;有机质、碱解氮含量处于中等以上水平;全氮、全磷、交换性钙、镁、有效锰、铜含量丰富;速效钾、有效硼、有效铁含量缺乏;部分核桃园土壤全钾、有效磷、有效锌含量偏低。综上所述,不同核桃园施肥应因地制宜,深施有机肥及含铁、锌、硼元素的肥料作基肥,并提高钾肥比例;同时建议土壤偏碱性地区施用酸性肥料,部分缺磷地区提高磷肥比例。

    Abstract:

    In order to provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for nutrient management and rational fertilizationof walnut orchard in Guizhou walnut main producingarea,126 soil samples of 0~ 40 cm from typical walnut orchards ofnorthwest and northern high latitude cold areas of Guizhou,southwestern and southern high latitude areas of Guizhou wereselected for nutrientanalysis.The results showed that 73.0% of soil pH was suitable for walnutgrowth,88.2% of soil organicmatter content was in the suitable range orabove.The total P and total N wereplentiful,while 22.2% of soil total K werein deficiency or extremedeficiency.7.9% of soil alkalide N content was in the middle or belowlevel.76.2% of availableP content in the suitable or aboverange.The content of available potassium was relativelydeficient,with 81.8% below themediumlevel.The exchangeable Ca and Mg contents were rich,with 0 and 8.7% below the mediumlevel,respectively.Available Mn and Cu wererich.Soil available B was in extreme deficiency,the proportion of below the middle level as highas99.2%.The ratio of available Fe and Zn in low and medium level was 45.2% and8.8%,respectively.The extent of soil nutrients deficiency showed as southwestern high latitude areas>northern high latitude cold areas>northwest high latitudecold areas>southern high latitude areas.The deficiency degrees of soil available nitrogen and available zinc in orchardswith fruits were more serious than those without fruits,but the content of available potassium was less than that of the no -fruitorchard.Ingeneral,the soil pH is suitable for walnut growth in the major producing areas ofGuizhou,the soil organicmatter and alkalide N content are above the mediumlevel,and the totalN,total P,exchange ofCa,Mg,available Mnand Cu arerich,while the soil availableK,available B and available Fe content arelow.And the soil totalK,available Pand available Zn in part of the walnut orchards are lower than thestandard.Aboveall,different walnut orchard fertilizationshould adjust measures according to local conditions,deep application of organic fertilizer and containing Fe,Zn,Bfertilizers as basefertilizer,and increasing the K of potash fertilizer arerecommended.At the sametime,the application ofacid fertilizer is recommended in the partial alkalineregion,and the proportion of phosphate fertilizer should be increased insomeareas.

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宋斌,刘茂桥,张文娥,张睿,彭剑,王长雷,潘学军.贵州核桃主产区核桃园土壤养分丰缺状况[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):65-74.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-31
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  • 录用日期:2020-03-28
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21