华南荔枝园土壤 pH状况及荔枝生长适宜的土壤 pH
作者:
作者单位:

(华南农业大学资源环境学院,广东 广州 510640)

作者简介:

邱全敏(1995-),男,江西赣州人,在读硕士研究生,主要从事土壤调查评价与改良研究。E-mail:1223608308@qq.com。通讯作者:姚丽贤,E-mail:lyaolx@scau.edu.cn。

通讯作者:

基金项目:

基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-32)。


Soil pH status in litchi orchards and suitable soil pH for litchi growth in South China
Author:
Affiliation:

(College of NaturalResources andEnvironment,South China AgriculturalSciences,Guangzhou Guangdong510640)

Fund Project:

  • 摘要
  • |
  • 图/表
  • |
  • 访问统计
  • |
  • 参考文献
  • |
  • 相似文献
  • |
  • 引证文献
  • |
  • 资源附件
    摘要:

    针对我国土壤酸化普遍、华南土壤酸性较强的问题,研究华南荔枝园土壤 pH状况,并进一步探讨荔枝生长最适 pH,为荔枝园土壤 pH改良的程度和范围提供理论依据和数据支持。采集华南荔枝主产区 458个荔枝园土壤样本,研究比较主产区土壤 pH状况。另外,采集华南典型荔枝园赤红壤(pH 4.20),以不添加改良剂为对照,添加硫磺(0.5g·kg -1)和不同用量石灰(0.5、1、2、4g·kg -1)调节土壤pH,形成6个土壤 pH处理,进行 120 d土壤培养和 300 d荔枝盆栽试验,研究土壤 pH对土壤性质及荔枝生长的影响。华南荔枝园土壤 pH在3.85~ 7.82之间,平均为 4.64,整体为酸性,其中以广西荔枝园土壤总体酸性最强。强酸性、酸性、弱酸性、中性和弱碱性荔枝园分别占45.7%、48.0%、5.0%、1.1%和0.2%。培养试验表明,土壤 pH在 3.84~ 8.03范围内,碱解氮、速效钾、有效镁含量及脲酶、酸性磷酸酶活性与土壤 pH呈显著负相关,有效磷、钙和铜与 pH为显著正相关,有效锌、铁和锰与 pH关系不密切。盆栽试验显示,施用 1 g·kg -1石灰处理荔枝叶片光合作用强,不同时期叶片数、叶面积、茎粗均不同程度高于其他处理,收获时生物量增量及增幅也显著高于其他处理。初步认为荔枝生长适宜的土壤 pH为 5.03。如土壤 pH ≤ 4.64或 ≥ 6.46,荔枝生长显著变差。如以 pH为 5.03作为最适宜的土壤 pH来初步衡量,则华南有 62.0%的荔枝园土壤 pH可能显著抑制荔枝生长,pH需提高平均 0.68个单位。这表明华南荔枝园土壤 pH改良任务十分迫切。

    Abstract:

    Soil acidification commonly occurs in China and soils are particularly in high acidity in South China. The presentstudy aims to elucidate soil pH status in litchi orchards in South China and identify the suitable soil pH for litchi growth, providing support for soil pH amelioration in litchi orchards of China. 458 soil samples were collected in litchi orchards fromlitchi main producing areas includingGuangdong,Guangxi,Fujian,Hainan and Yunnan provinces. The pH values of thesesoil samples were determined insolutions(soil∶water = 1∶2.5)and then evaluated. A typical latosolic redsoil(pH 4.20) from a commercial litchi orchard in Guangdong province was used to simultaneously carry out a 120 d soil incubation and a300 d litchi cultureexperiment,respectively. Six soil pH treatments were assigned by addition of 0.5 g·kg -1sulfur and0.5,1,2 and 4 g·kg -1oflime,respectively. The soil without any amendment was included as the control. Effects of soil pH onsoilfertility,enzyme activity and growth of litchi seedling were investigated. Soil pH in 458 litchi orchards varied from 3.85to7.82,with the average value of 4.64. Litchiorchards,with soilpH<4.5,4.5~5.5,5.5~6.5,6.5~7.5and>7.5,accounted for45.7%,48.0%,5.0%,1.1% and 0.2% of the total sampled orchards,respectively. Litchi orchards inGuangxi province had the lowest average soil pH. During theincubation,soil pH in thecontrol,sulfur and0.5,1,2 and 4 g·kg-1lime treatments averaged as4.64,4.25,4.68,5.03,6.46 and7.58,respectively. Sulfur application increased soilavailableP,Ca,Mg,Cu and Zncontents,however,reduced acid phosphataseactivity(APA)and did not affect ureaseactivity(UA). Liming decreased soil alkali -hydrolyzableN,availableK,Zn and the activities of both soil enzymes,butenhanced soil availableP,Ca and Cu. Totally,soil alkali -hydrolyzableN,availableK,Mg,UA and APA significantlyand negatively correlated to soil pH within the pH range of 3.84~ 8.03 during theincubation,with the Pearson coefficients of -0.529,-0.850,-0.579,-0.458 and -0.872,respectively.However,significantly positive correlation wasobserved between soil availableP,Ca,Cu and soilpH,with the Pearson coefficients of 0.380 **,0.914** and 0.375,respectively. Soil availableZn,Fe and Mn were not closely related to soil pH. Liming at the rate of 1 g·kg -1 considerably promoted photosynthesis of litchi seedlings and enhanced leafnumber,area and stemgirth,leading to significantly increasedplant biomass increment and amplification at harvest,as compared to all the other treatments. It is preliminarily suggested that the suitable soil pH for litchi growth was 5.03±0.58. Litchi growth may be significantly inhibited in soils with pH lowerthan 4.64 or higher than 6.46. If 5.03 was accepted as the optimum soil pH level,soil pH in 62.0% of the total sampledorchards might significantly suppress litchi growth,and needed to be improved by 0.68 pH unit as average. This indicates that soil pH improvement in litchi orchards from South China is urgently needed.

    参考文献
    相似文献
    引证文献
引用本文

邱全敏,王伟,吴雪华,周昌敏,白翠华,姚丽贤.华南荔枝园土壤 pH状况及荔枝生长适宜的土壤 pH[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):89-99.

复制
分享
文章指标
  • 点击次数:
  • 下载次数:
历史
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-15
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-11-24
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21