不同施肥处理对华北露天菜地氮素淋溶的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;2.河北农业大学资源与环境科学学院,河北 保定 071066)

作者简介:

杨荣全(1991-),女,河南周口人,硕士研究生,主要从事氮肥去向及土壤氮素平衡研究。E-mail:923274899@qq.com。通讯作者:郭李萍,E-mail:GuoLiping@caas.cn。

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基金项目:

基金项目:十三五重点研发计划面源污染专项“农田氮磷淋溶损失污染与防控机制研究”(2017YFD0200106,2016YFD0800105)。


Effect of different fertilization on nitrogen leaching in an open field used for vegetable planting on North China
Author:
Affiliation:

(1.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture,Chinese Academy of AgriculturalScience,Beijing100081;2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,Hebei Agricultural University,BaodingHebei071066)

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    摘要:

    氮肥的不合理施用是造成氮素淋失和地下水污染的主要原因之一,蔬菜生产地由于水肥投入不合理而引起的土壤氮素淋溶问题日趋严重。试验以保定地区露地蔬菜(黄瓜 -茄子)为研究对象,应用渗漏池法研究氮淋失与水肥响应的关系以及控水、控肥、增效剂对氮素淋溶的影响,揭示不同水肥管理措施下的氮素淋溶特征及阻控效果。结果表明:1)在农民常规施氮水平(全年施用氮肥 N 890 kg/hm2)下氮素在蔬菜生育期总氮淋溶量为 N 307.5 kg/hm2,占施氮量的 24.9%,总氮淋失量和施氮量呈显著线性关系。2)相比常规施氮量,减氮 20%和减氮 50%,全年总氮淋溶量可分别减少 12.8%和 36.3%。3)在减氮 20%基础上添加氮肥增效剂或改良剂(有机肥、联合抑制剂、生物炭、秸秆还田)能够减少总氮淋溶量 3.7%~ 10.4%,而不影响产量。4)在减氮 20%基础上减少灌溉量 20%,能够减少总氮淋溶量 33.4%。5)由于基肥施肥方式为种植行上小高畦开沟施用并覆土,有机肥和无机肥配施对减少氮淋溶量无显著影响。在大水大肥管理条件下,氮淋溶是华北典型露地菜地氮损失的主要途径之一,减氮 20%配合联合抑制剂和减氮 20%配施生物炭均可在一定程度上减少氮淋溶,且施肥的环境负荷小。

    Abstract:

    The problem of soilnitrogen(N)leaching caused by unreasonable water and fertilizer management practices is more seriously in open-field vegetable planting areas. In order to reveal nitrogen characteristics and control effects underdifferent water and fertilizer management measures,a field experiment with cucumber -Chinese eggplant rotation was conducted in a typical open field for vegetable planting in north China. The characteristics of N leaching were studied usingthe lysimetermethod.1)The total Nleaching(TNL)value under the conventional N application rate[890kg/(hm2·season)]was 307.5 kg/hm2 for the entire vegetable year and it had a significantly positive correlation with the N application rate.2)Reduction of the N rate by 20% and 50% decreased the TNL by 12.8% and 36.3% during the entire cucumber and eggplantseason(including the fallowperiod),respectively.3)A 20% reduction in the N rate had no obvious impact on vegetable yields. An amendment with a urease-inhibitor plus a nitrification-inhibitor,biochar,and straw decreased TNL by 3.7%~10.4%,compared to that without amendments.4)A combined reduction of N and the irrigation rate by 20% showed adecrease of the TNL by 33.4%.5)Since the base fertilization was applied to the ridge line and covered with soil whichavoiding the direct N leaching at the furrow,replacing 35% N with organic manure did not show significant effect on N leaching. The results showed that N leaching substantially contributed to the loss of fertilizer N in a typical open-fieldvegetable field in northChina,under the condition of large amount of water and fertilizer . Appropriate management practices can effectively reduce the TNL at different degrees without the negative impact on vegetable yields. These practices includethe addition ofsynergists(urease inhibitors and nitrificationinhibitors),the amendment withbiochar,and the reduction in both N rate and irrigation volume by 20%.

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杨荣全,曹飞,李迎春,郑益旻,马芬,张毅功,彭正萍,郭李萍.不同施肥处理对华北露天菜地氮素淋溶的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):130-137.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-13
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-11-24
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21