长期施肥对南方黄泥田水稻养分吸收利用的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.福建农林大学资源与环境学院,福建 福州 350002;2.福建省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所,福建 福州 350013)

作者简介:

戴竞雄(1995-),男,安徽省六安人,硕士研究生,从事植物营养与肥料研究。E-mail:1463538756@qq.com。通讯作者:王飞,E-mail:fjwangfei@163.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划子课题(2018YFD02003035);闽侯农田生态系统福建省野外科学观测研究站(闽科基﹝ 2018 ﹞17号);福建省属公益类科研院所基本科研专项(2016R1021-2)。


Effects of long-term fertilization on nutrient uptake and utilization of rice in yellow-mud paddy soils in southern China
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Affiliation:

(1.Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University,Fuzhou Fujian350002;2.Institute ofSoil andFertilizer,Fujian Academy of AgriculturalSciences,Fuzhou Fujian350013)

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    摘要:

    黄泥田为南方广泛分布的一类中低产田,为探明长期不同施肥模式对水稻养分吸收利用的影响,基于南方黄泥田连续 35年长期定位试验平台,设置 1)不施肥(CK),2)单施化肥(NPK),3)化肥 +牛粪(NPKM),4)化肥 +稻秆还田(NPKS)4个处理,于试验的第 35年分析水稻各生育期的植株养分与累积吸收利用。结果表明,长期施肥均提高了水稻籽粒和秸秆产量,其中籽粒产量增幅 61.1%~ 97.7%,以 NPKM与NPKS处理最高,其籽粒产量分别较 NPK处理提高 22.7%和 20.4%。与 CK相比,各施肥处理成熟期籽粒 N、P、K吸收量分别增幅 137.6%~206.2%、86.0%~ 172.4%和 71.6%~142.5%,茎叶N、P、K吸收量分别增幅98.4%~240.8%、145.7%~419.8%、94.4%~142.8%,且均以 NPKM处理最高。施肥的土壤有机质、碱解N、速效 K含量分别较 CK增幅 21.0%~42.1%、34.0%~ 86.0%和 40.9%~127.3%,差异均达显著水平,有机质、碱解 N及有效 P含量以 NPKM处理提升最为显著,速效 K含量以 NPKS处理提升最为明显。不论是籽粒、茎秆还是地上部植株,成熟期 N、P、K养分吸收量均与土壤有机质含量呈极显著正相关,且 N、P、K养分吸收量分别与相应的土壤碱解 N、有效 P及速效 K含量呈显著正相关。综合考虑施肥对水稻产量、养分利用与稻田土壤肥力的影响,NPKM与 NPKS处理优于 NPK,而 NPKM与 NPKS二者产量基本相当。土壤有机质是影响黄泥田水稻植株N、P、K养分吸收累积的关键因子。

    Abstract:

    To investigate the effects of different fertilization patterns on nutrient absorption and utilization of rice,based on the long-term experiment of yellow-mud paddy field for 35 consecutive years,four treatments are setup:1)Nofertilizer(CK);2)chemical fertilizer(NPK);3)chemical fertilizer+manure(NPKM);4)chemical fertilizer+straw(NPKS).In the 35th year of the trial,the nutrientcontent,cumulative absorption and utilization of rice in different growthperiods are analyzed.The results show that the long -term fertilization increases both the grain and straw yield ofrice,andthe grain yields increase from 61.1% to97.7%,of which NPKM and NPKS are thehighest,which are 22.7% and20.4%,respectively,compared withNPK.Compared with CK,theN,P and K absorption of grain increase from 137.6% to 206.2%,86.0% to 172.4% and 71.6% to142.5%,respectively,of which NPKM is thehighest.N,P and K absorptionsof stem increase from 98.4% tO240.8%,145.7% to 419.8% and 94.4% to142.8%,respectively, N and P are the highestwith NPKM and K is the highest withNPKS.Compared withCK,the contents of soil organicmatter,alkali -hydrolyzed Nand available K increase significantly from 21.0% to42.1%,34.0% to86.0%,and 40.9% to127.3%,respectively,withthe significant differences.Soil organic matter,alkali -hydrolyzed N and available P content increased are the highest withNPKM and available k content increased is the highest with NPKS.Regardless of thegrain,the stem or the plants abovetheground,the uptake ofN,P and K are highly positively correlated with soil organicmatter,and the uptake ofN,P andK were positively correlated with alkalolyticN,available P and available K significantly,respectively.Considering theeffect of fertilization on riceyield,nutrient utilization and soil fertility of paddyfield,the treatments of NPKM and NPKSare significantly better than NPK while the yield of them are almost equivalent.Soil organic matter is a key factor affectingnutrient uptake and accumulation of rice plantsN,P and K in yellow -mud field.

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戴竞雄,王飞.长期施肥对南方黄泥田水稻养分吸收利用的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):189-196.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-09-27
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2019-12-30
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21