栽培方式对寒地水稻产量及光合特性的影响
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(黑龙江八一农垦大学农学院 /黑龙江省现代农业栽培技术与作物种质改良重点实验室,黑龙江 大庆 163319)

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郭晓红(1980-),女,黑龙江省宁安市人,副教授,博士,主要从事水稻栽培研究。E-mail:guoxh1980@163.com。通讯作者:吕艳东,E-mail:lvyd_1978@163.com。

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Effects of cultivation methods on yield and photosynthetic characteristics of rice in cold region
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(College ofAgronmy,Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University/Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of ModernAgricultural Cultivation and Crop GermplasmImprovement,Daqing Heilongjiang163319)

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    摘要:

    为构建寒地水稻高产栽培技术体系提供理论和实践依据,进行了不同栽培方式对寒地水稻产量及光合特性影响的研究。于 2017~ 2018年,在大田条件下,以粳稻品种为试验材料,设置 3种栽培方式,即当地农民栽培方式(FP)、高产栽培方式(HY)和超高产栽培方式(SHY),其中以 FP为对照,研究了不同栽培方式下寒地水稻产量及产量构成、叶面积指数、光合特征参数、群体生长特征、干物质积累与转运等的差异。结果表明,与FP相比,HY和 SHY的增产幅度在 2年间分别为 9.85%~ 24.78%和 12.76%~23.54%;HY和 SHY显著提高了各时期水稻叶面积指数及水稻高效叶面积率;HY和 SHY显著提高了净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率,降低了胞间 CO 2浓度;HY和 SHY在分蘖盛期至齐穗期的光合势和群体生长率均显著高于 FP;HY和 SHY显著提高了水稻群体干物质重及叶、茎、鞘的物质输出率、转化率。可见,高产栽培方式和超高产栽培方式通过提高水稻群体物质生产能力,从而实现了水稻高产。

    Abstract:

    The effects of different cultivation methods on the yield and photosynthetic characteristics of rice in cold region werediscussed,which provided theoretical and practical basis for the construction of high yield cultivation technology system of rice incoldregion.In 2017~2018,under the fieldconditions,three cultivation methods were setup,i.e.local farmers’cultivationmethod(FP),high -yield cultivation method(HY)and super -high-yield cultivation method(SHY),with japonica rice varietiesas the experimentalmaterials.The yield and yieldcomposition,leaf areaindex,photosynthetic characteristicparameters,population growthcharacteristics,dry matter accumulation and transport of rice in different cultivation methods were studied withFP as the control.The results showed that,compared withFP,the yield increase of HY and SHY was 9.85%~ 24.78% and12.76%~ 23.54% in twoyears,respectively.HY and SHY significantly increased the leaf area index and efficient leaf area rateof rice in each period.HY and SHY significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpirationrate,and reduced the intercellular CO 2concentration.The photosynthetic potential and population of HY and SHY from thetillering stage to the full heading stage were significantly higher than those ofFP.HY and SHY significantly increased the drymatter weight ofrice,the material export rate and transformation rate ofleaves,stems andsheaths.Insummary,high -yield cultivation methods and super-high-yield cultivation methods can achieve high yields of rice by improving population growthstructure.

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郭晓红,兰宇辰,胡月,王鹤璎,徐令旗,孙光旭,姜红芳,吕艳东.栽培方式对寒地水稻产量及光合特性的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):220-227.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-30
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-03-18
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21