秸秆还田是秸秆资源化利用的现实途径
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作者单位:

(1.农业农村部废弃物肥料化利用重点实验室,湖北 武汉 430064;2.湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所,湖北 武汉 430064)

作者简介:

陈云峰(1979-),男,湖北蕲春人,研究员,博士,主要从事农业废弃物资源化利用、土壤生态学和土壤肥料学研究。E-mail:chen971314@163.com。

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基金项目:湖北省技术创新专项重大项目(2018ABA091);湖北省农业科学院重大研发成果培育专项(2017CGPY01);农业农村部废弃物肥料化利用重点实验室开放基金(KLFAW201705)。


Straw return is the realistic way of straw resource utilization
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Affiliation:

(1.KeyLaboratory of Fertilization from Agricultural Wastes,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs,Wuhan Hubei 430064;2.Institute of Plant Protection and SoilScience,Hubei Academy of AgriculturalSciences,Wuhan Hubei430064)

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    摘要:

    秸秆资源化利用主要包括农业利用(肥料化、饲料化、基料化)和工业利用(燃料化、原料化)两大类。在国家层面上,目前的原则为“多元利用、农用优先”,但对于肥料化、饲料化、基料化这三化并没有设立优先原则。本文在比较秸秆农业利用的历史、与农业产业结构调整的关系、自然适应性、经济效益、生态效益等后,认为在当前农业形势下,秸秆还田是最优、最现实的农用模式。此外,还从秸秆腐解规律及其调控的角度证明了秸秆还田是一个可以长期持续的过程。因此,建议在国家层面上树立“多元利用、农用优先、还田为主”的秸秆资源化利用原则,并从秸秆还田补贴、农机农艺配套、病虫草害控制及新型秸秆腐熟剂等方面进一步完善当前的秸秆还田政策及技术。

    Abstract:

    Currently,utilization of crop straw in China can be classified into agriculture and industry utilization,respectively.Agricultureutilization make straw asforage,fertilizer or base material for ediblemushrooms,and industry utilization make straw asenergy or the raw material for industryprocessing.At the nationallevel,the current principle is“multipe-waysutilization,agricultural utilization first”,but there is no prioring principle for the three types offertilizer,feed,and basematerial.In this study,we have compared the history,naturaladaptability,economic benefits,ecological benefits of the threeways of straw utilization,as well as the relationships between the three ways of straw utilization and the farming structure.The results show that straw return is the best way of straw agriculture utilization at currentagriculture.Inaddition,thestudy demonstrates that straw return is sustainable in terms of straw decomposition law and itsregulation.In conclusion, the principle of straw utilization should be supplied with“straw return mainly”besides with“multiple-waysutilization,agricultural utilization first”at the nationallevel.Also we suggest that the government adjust the polices of straw returnsubsidies and the scientists improve the technologies of integration of agricultural machinery and strawreturn,pest and weedcontrol and specialized straw decompositionadditives,so as to extent the application of straw return.

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陈云峰,夏贤格,杨利,刘波,张敏敏,聂新星.秸秆还田是秸秆资源化利用的现实途径[J].中国土壤与肥料,2020,(6):299-307.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-11-08
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-01-19
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-21