水氮调控对冬小麦光合特性和产量的影响
作者:
作者单位:

(1.河北农业大学/河北省农田生态环境重点实验室,河北 保定 071001;2.国家华北作物改良与调控重点实验室,河北 保定 071001;3.安平县农业农村局,河北 衡水 053600)

作者简介:

张帆(1993-),女,河北赵县人,硕士研究生,研究方向为农业工程。E-mail:459054580@qq.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划“京津冀冬小麦化肥农药减施技术集成研究与示范”(2017YFD0201707);河北省重点研发计划(19226425D)。


Effects of water and nitrogen regulation on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of winter wheat
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Affiliation:

(1.Hebei Agricultural University/ Key Laboratory for Farmland Eco-environment of Hebei,Baoding Hebei 071001;2.State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation,Baoding Hebei 071001;3.Anping Agricultural and Rural Bureau,Hengshui Hebei 053600)

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    摘要:

    为探索冬小麦高产高效水氮调控措施,采用田间试验法,研究不同水氮处理对小麦旗叶光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Cs)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、SPAD值以及产量的影响。结果表明,灌水量相同时,随施氮量减少,两种灌溉方式的小麦旗叶Pn和Cs均增加,Ci先降后增。微喷下,推荐施氮肥减氮20%(M80%RN)处理的Ci最低,底肥+水溶肥追施处理(WSF)次之。微喷下的小麦旗叶Tr随施氮量减少逐渐提高,以WSF处理最高,而传统畦灌下的小麦旗叶Tr随施氮量减少而降低,农民习惯施氮肥处理(FN)的Tr最高。施氮量相同时,随灌水量减少,小麦旗叶Pn和SPAD值减小,Tr、Cs和Ci增加。相同施氮下,微喷灌和传统畦灌方式下的小麦产量接近,但前者减少50%灌水量;微喷灌下WSF处理的小麦产量最高。因此,施用氮磷钾分别为150、90、75 kg/hm2的底肥+水溶肥追施处理为推荐最佳水氮调控措施。

    Abstract:

    To explore the water and nitrogen regulation measures for high-yield and high-efficiency of winter wheat,effects of different water and nitrogen treatments on photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Cs),intercellular CO2(Ci),transpiration rate(Tr),SPAD value and yield of winter wheat were studied under the field experiment.The results showed that the Pn and Cs of wheat flag leaves of two irrigation methods increased and the Ci first decreased and then increased with the decreased of the amount of nitrogen,when the amount of irrigation water was the same.Under micro-spraying irrigation,the recommended treatment of 20% nitrogen reduction(M80%RN)with nitrogen fertilizer had the lowest Ci,followed by the treatment of base fertilizer+water soluble fertilizer(WSF).Tr of wheat flag leaf in the micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments was increased by nitrogen fertilizer decrease and WSF treatment had the highest,while in the condition with traditional furrow irrigation it was decreased by nitrogen fertilizer decrease and farmers’ habit of applying nitrogen fertilizer(FN)had the highest.With the same nitrogen application rate,Pn and SPAD value of flag leaf in wheat decreased,and Tr,Gs and Ci were gradually increased with the irrigation decrease.Under the same nitrogen level,the yield of wheat under micro-sprinkler irrigation was close to that under traditional irrigation,but the former reduced irrigation volume by 50%.The highest yield of wheat was the treatment of WSF under micro-sprinkler irrigation.Therefore,the treatment of base fertilizer+water soluble fertilizer with 150,90 and 75 kg/hm2 of N,P and K should be recommended as the best water and nitrogen control measure.

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张帆,周加森,马阳,吴敏,张世卿,绳莉丽,王贵霞,王艳群,彭正萍.水氮调控对冬小麦光合特性和产量的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):70-74.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-03
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-02-14
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18