土壤施硒对覆膜花生相关性状的影响
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(广东省科学院生物工程研究所,广东 广州 510316)

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陈勇生(1980-),男,河南信阳人,高级农艺师,硕士,研究方向为生物育种。E-mail:yongshengchen100@126.com。

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基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系(CAR201707);广东省科学院建设国内一流研究机构行动专项资金(2019GDASYL-0104013);广东省农业科技特派员项目。


Effects of selenium fertilizer applied in soil on related characteristics of peanut with plastic film
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(Institute of Bioengineering,Guangdong Acdemy of Sciences,Guangzhou Guangdong 510316)

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    摘要:

    在覆膜条件下,研究土施硒肥对不同花生品种开花期和结荚期生理特性、农艺及产量性状的影响。结果表明,土施硒肥对3个花生品种结荚期的生理特性(黑玉珍的叶片POD活性除外)和农艺性状影响不大,而开花期的生理特性和百果重、饱果率、单株果数和单株生产力等产量性状较对照都显著提高,但不同花生品种间存在差异。其中,鲁花4号施硒后,其开花期叶片叶绿素a含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性都显著增加,产量性状中单株果数和单株生产力也分别较对照显著增加52.4%和90.8%,分别达12.8个和22.7 g;花育16号施硒后则表现开花期叶片叶绿素a、b、a+b含量和SOD、CAT活性增加显著,但产量性状方面增加未达到显著水平;黑花生品种黑玉珍在施硒后表现光合特性中叶绿素a、a+b含量增加达显著水平,而产量性状中的百果重、饱果率和单株生产力依次达166.9 g、95.2%和20.5 g,较对照分别显著增加37.5%、4.73%和64.0%。此外,开花期生理性状与产量性状相关分析结果进一步表明,叶片叶绿素a含量、叶绿素a/b与单株果数、单株生产力呈较大正相关,其中叶绿素a/b与单株果数相关达显著水平(0.9257),这说明在本试验覆膜条件下,就3个花生品种平均而言,土壤施硒提高了花生植株开花期的叶片光合性能和抗氧化酶活性,从而增加了单株果数和单株生产力,增加了花生产量,这为富硒花生高产高效栽培技术提供了一定的理论依据。建议在实际工作中,可以根据不同的花生品种采取相适应的配套硒肥施用技术,以达到最佳的节本增效目标。

    Abstract:

    The influences of selenium fertilizer applied in soil on the physiological characteristics during flowering and pod setting stages and the agronomic and yield characteristics for peanut of different varieties with plastic film were studied.The results indicated that selenium fertilizer applied in soil had little effect on both the physiological characteristics during the pod setting stage and the agronomic ones of the 3 peanut varieties,while both the physiological characteristics during flowering stage and the yield ones such as the 100-pod weight,the plump pod rate,the number and productivity per plant of the 3 varieties with selenium fertilizer applied in soil were significantly higher than those of CK,but there was difference of the values on these characteristics among the different peanut varieties.The content of chlorophyll a and the SOD,CAT activities in leaves of Luhua 4 with selenium fertilizer applied in soil were all significantly higher than those of CK during flowering stage,and its number and productivity per plant were respectively 52.4% and 90.8% higher than those of CK(respectively 12.8 and 22.7 g).The content of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b,chlorophyll a and b,and the SOD,CAT activities in leaves of Huayu 16 with selenium fertilizer applied in soil were all significantly higher than those of CK during flowering stage,too,and its values on the yield characteristics were slightly higher than those of CK.And both the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a and b in leaves of the black peanut variety Heiyuzhen with selenium fertilizer applied in soil were significantly higher than those of CK during flowering stage,and its 100-pod weight,plump pod rate,and productivity per plant were respectively 166.9 g,95.2% and 20.5 g,which were respectively 37.5%,4.73% and 64.0% higher than those of CK.The results of the correlation coefficient analyzed among the physiological characteristics during flowering stage and the yield ones furtherly showed that the content of chlorophyll a and the ratio of.chlorophyll a.to b in leaves showed much positively correlated with the number and productivity per plant,and what’s more,the coefficient between the ratio of.chlorophyll a.to b and the number per plant was at a significant level(0.9257).These indicated that the average values of both the photosynthetic characteristics and the antioxidative enzymes’ activities during flowering stage of the 3 peanut varieties with plastic film were improved by applying selenium fertilizer in soil,and so the average values of their number and productivity per plant and yield were increased,which provided some theoretical basis for high yield and high efficiency cultivation techniques of peanut enriched with selenium.It is suggested that suitable matching application technologies of selenium fertilizer should be adopted according to different peanut varieties in order to have the best effect on decreasing cost and increasing benefit in practice.

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陈勇生,何慧怡,齐永文,劳方业.土壤施硒对覆膜花生相关性状的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):117-123.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-30
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-02-29
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18