秸秆还田配合施肥措施对玉米产量及耕层土壤质量的影响
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(1.黑龙江省农业科学院耕作栽培研究所/农业农村部东北地区作物栽培科学观测实验站,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150086;2.内蒙古民族大学农学院,内蒙古 通辽 028043)

作者简介:

葛选良(1984-),男(蒙古族),内蒙古通辽市人,助理研究员,博士,主要从事玉米高产高效栽培技术研究。E-mail:gexuanliang@163.com。

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基金项目:国家重点研发计划“粮食丰产增效科技创新”重点专项(2017YFD0300505-1);黑龙江省自然科学基金联合引导项目(LH2019C060);国家重点研发计划“化学肥料和农药减施增效综合技术研发”重点专项(2017YFD0201803-4);国家玉米产业技术体系专项”(CARS-02-34)。


Effects of straw returning cooperated with fertilizer practice on yield of maize and soil quality of tillage layer
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(1.Institute of Crop Cultivation and Farming,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northeast China,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China,Harbin Heilongjiang 150086;2.College of Agronomy,Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities,Tongliao Inner Mongolia 028043)

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    摘要:

    通过分析不同施肥措施玉米耕层土壤碳、氮含量及相关关键酶活性和产量特征,探讨秸秆全量还田条件下不同施肥措施玉米产量差异的形成原因,为进一步提升黑龙江省第一积温带玉米耕层土壤生产能力提供理论和技术支持。试验以黑龙江省第一积温带主栽品种京农科728为试验材料,采用大区对比试验设计,设置掺混肥+尿素(NHF)、碳基肥+尿素(TJF)和控释肥(KSF)3个施肥措施,研究了秸秆还田配合施肥措施对玉米耕层土壤碳、氮含量及相关关键酶活性和产量的影响,分析了秸秆还田配合施肥措施玉米耕层土壤有机碳、微生物量碳、铵态氮、硝态氮、碱解氮、微生物量氮含量和土壤脲酶、过氧化氢酶、纤维素酶、蔗糖酶活性的变化规律。结果表明,与NHF相比,灌浆期TJF土壤有机碳、土壤微生物量碳含量分别提高了7.67%、7.29%,土壤铵态氮、土壤硝态氮、土壤碱解氮、土壤微生物量氮含量分别提高了1.97%、7.77%、7.29%、6.28%,土壤脲酶、土壤过氧化氢酶、土壤纤维素酶、土壤蔗糖酶活性分别提高了23.29%、5.92%、7.97%、15.70%;KSF土壤有机碳、土壤微生物量碳含量分别提高了10.80%、10.86%,土壤铵态氮、土壤硝态氮、土壤碱解氮、土壤微生物量氮含量分别提高了21.39%、12.30%、31.97%、21.08%,土壤脲酶、土壤过氧化氢酶、土壤纤维素酶、土壤蔗糖酶活性分别提高了25.81%、24.35%、12.76%、18.93%。与NHF相比,TJF、KSF产量分别提高了1.99%和13.24%。本研究推荐,秸秆全量还田条件下黑龙江省第一积温带玉米生产适宜施肥模式为70 cm宽行+ 40 cm窄行大垄双行种植,配施控释肥600 kg/hm2

    Abstract:

    In order to investigate the formation reasons of maize yield with different fertilizer practices in the first accumulative temperate zone in Heilongjiang province,the content of carbon and nitrogen,activities of related key enzymes in surface soil and yields under different fertilizer patterns were analyzed under the condition of full straw returning to provide theoretical and technical support for enhancements of maize production capacity.Using the introduced cultivation variety Jingnongke 728 in the first accumulated temperature zone of Heilongjiang province as experimental materials and adopting the plot contrast design,the treatments of farmer fertilizer+urea(NHF),carbon basal fertilizer+urea(TJF)and controlled release fertilizer(KSF)were built.Effects of straw returning cooperated with different fertilizer practice on the content of carbon and nitrogen,activities of related key enzymes in surface soil and yield were studied.Meanwhile,the change rules of soil physicochemical indexes of organic carbon,microbial carbon,ammonia nitrogen,nitrate nitrogen,available nitrogen,microbial nitrogen and activities of urease,protease,cellulase and invertase in surface soil were analyzed.The results showed as follows:Compared with NHF,content of soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass carbon of TJF in grain filling stage increased by 7.67% and 7.29%,content of soil ammonium nitrogen,soil nitrate nitrogen,soil available nitrogen and soil microbial biomass nitrogen increased by 1.97%,7.77%,7.29% and 6.28%,and activities of soil urease,soil catalase,soil cellulase and soil sucrase increased by 23.29%,5.92%,7.97% and 15.70% respectively;content of soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass carbon of KSF in grain filling stage increased by 10.80% and 10.86%,content of soil ammonium nitrogen,soil nitrate nitrogen,soil available nitrogen and soil microbial biomass nitrogen increased by 21.39%,12.30%,31.97% and 21.08%,activities of soil urease,soil catalase,soil cellulase and soil sucrase increased by 25.81%,24.35%,12.76% and 18.93% respectively.Yield of TJF and KSF increased by 1.99% and 13.24% respectively.The study recommends the suitable cultivation model for maize production in the first accumulative temperate zone in Heilongjiang province is the double rows planting which means that one 70 cm wide row with 40 cm narrow row,assisting in the application of 600 kg/hm2 controlled release fertilizer under the condition of full straw returning.

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葛选良,钱春荣,李梁,姜宇博,宫秀杰,吕国依.秸秆还田配合施肥措施对玉米产量及耕层土壤质量的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):131-136.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-03
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-04-06
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18