混施微生物菌剂和有机肥对‘新红星’苹果解袋后果实品质的影响
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(1.山东农业大学食品科学与工程学院,山东省高校食品加工技术与质量控制重点试验室,山东 泰安 271000;2.山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院,山东 泰安 271018)

作者简介:

刘洋洋(1993-),女,山东省安丘市人,硕士研究生,研究方向为食品生物技术。E-mail:651813792@qq.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0200804-04)。


Effects of organic fertilizer containing microbial inoculants on fruit quality of 'Starkrimson' apples after bag removal
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(1.School of Food Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control,Tai’an Shandong 271000;2.College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,Tai’an Shandong 271018)

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    摘要:

    以5年生‘新红星’苹果果树为试材,探究不同施肥处理(T1,有机肥;T2,微生物菌剂+有机肥;T3,微生物菌剂;CK,对照)对‘新红星’苹果解袋后果实内在品质、呼吸速率、乙烯释放率、果实硬脆性及相关酶和基因表达的影响。结果表明,与传统单一施肥相比,施加含微生物菌剂的有机肥显著提高了果实可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量及糖酸比。解袋后0~12 d果实呼吸速率及乙烯释放速率显著上升,12~15 d趋于平稳。果实解袋后第9、12、15 d,T2组果实可溶性固形物含量相对于CK组高出2.63%、5.89%、8.78%;可溶性糖高出6.89%、6.71%、12.86%;糖酸比高出15.85%、19.25%、17.08%,且差异显著。施加含微生物菌剂的有机肥处理(T2)显著提高了果实的总香气含量,其含量相对于CK、T1、T3组分别高出16.69%、9.06%、6.25%。混施微生物菌剂和有机肥有利于解袋后苹果果实着色,使果皮细胞排列紧密整齐,对提升果实脆度,减缓果实硬度下降具有重要作用。细胞壁关键酶果胶甲酯酶(PME)、多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)活性在解袋后一直处于上升状态,其中T2组PME、PG活性及MdPME、MdPG表达量均低于CK组,因此果实在解袋后保持较高的硬脆度。综上所述,混施微生物菌剂和有机肥(T2)对提高‘新红星’苹果果实品质及延长货架期具有重要作用。

    Abstract:

    The effects of different fertilization treatments(T1,organic fertilizer;T2,organic fertilizer+microbial agent;T3,microbial agent;CK,control)on the intrinsic quality,respiration rate,fruit hard and brittleness related enzymes and gene expression of apples after bag removal were studied by using the 5-year-old‘Starkrimson’apple fruit trees as materials.The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer containing microbial agents significantly increased the soluble solids,soluble sugar and sugar to acid ratio of the fruit compared with the traditional single application of organic fertilizer.The fruit respiration rate and ethylene release rate increased significantly from 0~12 days after bag removal,and stabilized at 12~15 days.On the 9th,12th and 15th day after fruit bag removal,the content of soluble solids in T2 treatment was 2.63%,5.89% and 8.78% higher than that of CK;the soluble sugar was 6.89%,6.71% and 12.86% higher;the ratio of sugar to acid was 15.85%,19.25% and 17.08% higher than that of CK,and the difference was significant.The T2 treatment significantly increased the aroma content of the fruit,and the total aroma content of the apple fruit was 16.69%,9.06% and 6.25% higher than that of CK,T1 and T3,respectively.The organic fertilizer applied with the microbial agent is beneficial to coloring the apple fruit after bag removal,so that the pericarp cells are arranged closely and neatly,which plays an important role in improving fruit fragility and slowing down the fruit hardness.Through the cell wall enzymes PME and PG activities,the cell wall enzyme activity of the fruit was increased after the bag was removed.The T2 treatment of PME,PG activity and relative gene expression were lower than CK treatment,so the fruit maintained higher hardness and brittleness after bag removal.In summary,the treatment of organic fertilizer containing microbial agents has an important role in improving the fruit quality of ‘Starkrimson’ apples after bag removal.

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刘洋洋,束怀瑞,陈伟.混施微生物菌剂和有机肥对‘新红星’苹果解袋后果实品质的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):169-179.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-11-25
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  • 录用日期:2019-12-20
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18