喷施不同浓度亚硒酸钠对葡萄生理特性和品质的影响
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(1.甘肃农业大学,甘肃 兰州 730070 ;2.甘肃省农业科学研究院,甘肃 兰州 730070)

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豆鑫(1995-),男,甘肃兰州人,硕士研究生,研究方向为果树栽培技术与生理。E-mail:847485000@qq.com。

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基金项目:甘肃省科技重大专项(18ZD2NA006-4);高等学校创新能力提升项目(2019B-079)。


Effects of spraying different concentrations of sodium selenite on physiological characteristics and quality of grapes
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(1.Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou Gansu 730070;2.Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Lanzhou Gansu 730070)

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    摘要:

    以3年生露地栽培‘夏黑’葡萄为供试作物,分别在开花期、坐果期、果实膨大期及果实转色期喷施浓度为0 mg·L-1(CK)、20 mg·L-1(T1)、40 mg·L-1(T2)、60 mg·L-1(T3)和80 mg·L-1(T4)的亚硒酸钠溶液,探究其对葡萄生理特性及果实品质的影响。结果表明,1)喷施亚硒酸钠对葡萄生理特性的影响。叶片可溶性蛋白含量,脯氨酸含量,SOD、POD、CAT活性随亚硒酸钠浓度增加呈先升高后降低的趋势,亚硒酸钠浓度在40 mg·L-1时达到最大值,分别较CK显著提高了11.27%、11.89%、10.67%、8.33%、15.60%,各处理叶片相对电导率、MDA含量均低于CK,且亚硒酸钠浓度在40 mg·L-1处理较CK显著降低了7.73%、14.39%;2)对果实品质的影响。40 mg·L-1亚硒酸钠处理果实单粒重、单穗重、果形指数、可溶性蛋白、总酚含量分别较CK显著提高了8.81%、6.82%、7.06%、6.93%、24.43%,固酸比在40和80 mg·L-1亚硒酸钠时分别较CK显著增大8.05%、7.95%,Vc含量在亚硒酸钠浓度为40、60 mg·L-1时较CK显著提高7.52%、7.60%,类黄酮和果实花青素含量在亚硒酸钠浓度为60 mg·L-1时分别较CK显著提高20.14%、18.80%;果实硒含量与亚硒酸钠处理浓度呈正相关关系,分别是CK的1.75、3.64、6.69、8.92倍。主成分分析结果表明,5种施硒水平对提高葡萄生理特性和改善果实品质顺序依次为T2>T3>T1>T4>CK,综合分析,应用40 mg·L-1亚硒酸钠处理效果最佳。

    Abstract:

    Three-year-old field-cultivated ‘Summer black’ grape were used as test crop,and the spraying concentrations were 0 mg·L-1(CK),20 mg·L-1(T1),40 mg·L-1(T2),60 mg·L-1(T3)and 80 mg·L-1(T4)sodium selenite solutions to investigate their effects on the physiological properties and fruit quality of grape.The results showed that:1)Spraying sodium selenite had effects on the physiological characteristics of grapes.The soluble protein content,proline content,SOD,POD,and CAT activities of leaves increased first and then decreased with the increase of sodium selenite concentration,and reached the maximum when the sodium selenite concentration was at 40 mg·L-1;Compared with CK,it was significantly increased by 11.27%,11.89%,10.67%,8.33% and 15.60%,respectively.The relative conductivity and MDA content of each treatment leaf were significantly reduced by 7.73%,14.39%,respectively,at the concentration of 40 mg·L-1 sodium selenite.2)The single grain weight,single ear weight,fruit shape index,soluble protein,and total phenol content of 40 mg·L-1 sodium selenite treatment increased by 8.81%,6.82%,7.06%,6.93% and 24.43%,respectively.The ratios of solid acid to sodium selenite at 40 and 80 mg·L-1 were significantly increased by 8.05% and 7.95% compared with CK.The contents of Vc were significantly increased by 7.52%,7.60% when the sodium selenite was 40 and 60 mg·L-1.When the concentration of sodium selenite was 60 mg·L-1,the contents of flavonoids and anthocyanins in fruits were significantly increased by 20.14% and 18.80%,respectively.The fruit selenite content was positively correlated with the concentration of sodium selenite treatment,which were 1.75,3.64,6.69 and 8.92 times that of CK,respectively.The results of principal component analysis showed that the order of improving the physiological characteristics and improving fruit quality of the five selenium application levels was T2>T3>T1>T4>CK,and the comprehensive analysis showed that 40 mg·L-1 sodium selenite application had the best effect.

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豆鑫,张坤,张锦强,杨江山.喷施不同浓度亚硒酸钠对葡萄生理特性和品质的影响[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):180-186.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-27
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:2020-02-21
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18