红壤区旱地和水田土壤磷素状况及其流失风险
作者:
作者单位:

(1.内蒙古科技大学能源与环境学院,内蒙古 包头 014010;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所/土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室,江苏 南京 210008;3.江西省红壤研究所/国家红壤改良工程技术研究中心,江西 南昌 330046;4.中国科学院大学,北京 100049)

作者简介:

肖作义(1962-),男,内蒙古包头人,教授,硕士,主要从事水处理技术及环境保护应用研究。E-mail:xiaO2135333@126.com。

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基金项目:

基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31672229);江西省自然科学基金项目(20192BAB203022)。


Current phosphorus status of red soil in drylands and paddy fields and its loss risks
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Affiliation:

(1.School of Environment and Energy,Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology,Baotou Inner Mongolia 014010;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture,Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Nanjing Jiangsu 210008;3.Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil/National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement,Nanchang Jiangxi 330046;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049)

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    摘要:

    红壤一般偏酸且铁铝富集,磷与铁、铝形成Fe-P、Al-P,降低了红壤磷的有效性。施磷提高红壤供磷能力,但是未被作物利用的磷积累在土壤中,对水体环境构成威胁。研究红壤磷素状况对于提高作物产量和保护环境具有重要意义。已有很多关于红壤磷素状况方面的报道,但是很少将红壤磷素状况与水体磷进行关联分析。在典型红壤区江西省余江县布点采集了旱地和水田土样各54份,周边水样24份,分析了土壤有效磷(Olsen-P和Bray-P)含量、水溶性磷(CaCl2-P)含量和水样总磷含量。结果表明,以Olsen-P为指标,11%的旱地和39%的水田土壤缺磷,61%的旱地和39%的水田土壤磷适合作物生长,11%的旱地和11%的水田土壤处于高磷状态。以Bray-P为指标,11%的旱地和33%的水田土壤缺磷,6%的旱地和33%的水田土壤磷适合作物生长,77%的旱地和6%的水田土壤处于高磷状态。Olsen-P、Bray-P与CaCl2-P三者之间具有极显著相关关系,对Olsen-P与CaCl2-P、Bray-P与CaCl2-P分别进行回归分析,求得土壤磷流失突变点的Olsen-P和Bray-P含量分别为56.31和118.4 mg·kg-1。依据这两个标准,水田土壤有效磷均未超过磷流失突变点,旱地土壤Olsen-P和Bray-P超过突变点的样品比例分别为50%和33%。水田周边排水沟渠水的总磷含量均低于《地表水环境质量标准》Ⅱ类水标准。总之,调查的红壤区水田土壤整体较为缺磷、磷流失风险低,旱地土壤有效磷含量和磷流失风险都较高。

    Abstract:

    Red soils are generally acid and contain more Fe and Al that can form Fe-P and Al-P,resulting in low P bioavailability.Applying P fertilizer can improve the capability of red soils to supply P for plants,but the P that is not used by plants accumulates in soils and has potential risks in polluting surface water.Researching soil P status has important implications for increasing crop yield and protecting ecological environment.Much more attention has been paid to the P status of red soils and surface water,but fewer studies pay attention to the direct link between red soil P status and surface water P pollution.We collected 54 soil samples in drylands,54 soil samples in paddy fields and 24 water samples around paddy fields in Yujiang County,Jiangxi Province.We determined the Olsen-P,Bray-P and CaCl2-P concentrations of soil samples,and the total P concentrations of water samples.The results showed that,according to Olsen-P,11% of drylands and 39% of paddy fields were P-deficient,61% of drylands and 39% of paddy fields were P-moderate,and 11% of drylands and 11% of paddy fields were P-excess.According to Bray-P,11% of drylands and 33% of paddy fields were P-deficient,6% of drylands and 33% of paddy fields were P-moderate,and 77% of drylands and 6% of paddy fields were P-excess.A extremely correlation was observed among Olsen-P、Bray-P and CaCl2-P.On the basis of the regressive analyses between Olsen-P and CaCl2-P,and between Bray-P and CaCl2-P,the change points of P loss were 56.31 and 118.4 mg·kg-1 for Olsen-P and Bray-P,respectively.According to the change points,the concentrations of Olsen-P and Bray-P in paddy fields never exceeded the P change point,but 50% and 33% of drylands exceeded the P change points of Olsen-P and Bray-P,respectively.The total P concentrations in the ditches around paddy fields never exceeded the total P standard for surface water in class II of the Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water.Taken together,dryland soils have high available P concentrations and high P loss risk,whereas paddy soils have low available P concentrations and low P loss risk.

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肖作义,马飞,柳开楼,赵学强,郑春丽,张昊青,王嘉林,沈仁芳.红壤区旱地和水田土壤磷素状况及其流失风险[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):282-288.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25
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  • 录用日期:2020-02-21
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18