蔬菜化肥减量增效技术途径——以重庆为例
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作者单位:

(1.重庆市农业科学院,重庆 401329;2.重庆市农业技术推广总站,重庆 401120;3.西南大学资源环境学院,重庆 400716)

作者简介:

梁涛(1985-),男,山西稷山人,助理研究员,博士,主要从事蔬菜养分管理和区域绿色发展技术研究。E-mail:zhsliangtao@163.com。

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基金项目:鲁渝农林废弃物基质化利用协同创新中心(CSTC2019


Technical approach for inorganic fertilizer reduction and the efficiency enhancement in vegetable production:A case study in Chongqing city
Author:
Affiliation:

(1.Chongqing Academy of Agriculture Science,Chongqing 401329;2.Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station,Chongqing 401120;3.College of Resources and Environment,Southwest University,Chongqing 400716)

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    摘要:

    我国蔬菜生产上化肥投入高,化肥减量潜力大。在对重庆化肥投入来源进行分析的基础上,开展重庆主要蔬菜种类的施肥情况调查,并针对性地开展多点有机肥替代试验,研究蔬菜化肥减量和有机替代潜力以及对蔬菜产量的影响。结果表明,2017年蔬菜生产化肥用量占重庆总化肥用量的35.3%,其对2010~2017年重庆化肥用量增加的贡献率为61.4%,远高于其他农作物。469个蔬菜种植农户施肥的调查结果表明,重庆蔬菜种植平均化肥用量为502.7 kg·hm-2(折N、P2O5、K2O合计),多次采收的蔬菜(茄果类、瓜菜类)和浅根系蔬菜(绿叶菜类、甘蓝白菜类)化肥投入最高,具有较大的化肥减量潜力,深根系蔬菜(根菜类、薯芋类)化肥投入较低。54个有机肥替代试验结果显示,通过有机肥替代化肥,菜地土壤有机碳的投入增加681.6 kg·hm-2,有机养分投入增加47.2 kg·hm-2,显著提高蔬菜产量14.7%,每公顷化肥投入平均减少88.0 kg·hm-2,占总化肥养分投入的17.3%,其中氮肥、磷肥和钾肥分别减少27.26%、43.6%和17.2%,磷肥减量幅度高于氮肥和钾肥。综上所述,重庆蔬菜化肥投入普遍偏高,多次采收和浅根系蔬菜,具有较大的减肥潜力;采用有机肥替代化肥技术,不仅减少化肥投入,还可实现蔬菜增产。

    Abstract:

    The application rate of inorganic fertilizer is high for vegetable production in China,resulting in great potential of reducing inorganic fertilizer.Based on the analysis of sources of inorganic fertilizer input in Chongqing,we conducted a survey on the fertilizer consumption in vegetable production covering main vegetable species in Chongqing.A multi-sites experiment was carried out to investigate the potential for reducing inorganic fertilizer,the partially substitution of organic fertilizers for inorganic fertilizers and the impact on yield.The result showed that vegetable production consumed 35.3% of the total inorganic fertilizer in Chongqing in 2017,and its contribution to the increase in inorganic fertilizer use in chongqing from 2010 to 2017 was 61.4%,much higher then other crops. Our survey from 469 famers in vegetable production revealed that the average total inorganic fertilizer application rate is 502.7 kg·hm-2 (calculated in terms of N,P2O5,K2O).The inorganic fertilizer rate of multi-harvested vegetables (solanaceous fruit and melons vegetables)and shallow root vegetables (green leafy vegetables,cabbage and Chinese cabbage)was relatively higher,which also had the great potential for inorganic fertilizer input reduction,but deep root vegetable (rhizomes and tubers)applied relatively less inorganic fertilizer.The results of 54 experiments showed that partially substituting inorganic fertilizer with organic fertilizer significantly improved the application rate of organic carbon and organic nutrient (calculated in terms of N,P2O5,K2O)by 681.6 and 47.2 kg·hm-2,respectively,simultaneously increased the vegetable yield by 14.7% and decreased inorganic fertilizer input by 88.0 kg·hm-2,which accounting for 17.3% of the total inorganic fertilizer consumption.The nitrogen (N),phosphate (P2O5)and potassium (K2O)fertilizer input were reduced by 27.26%,43.6%,17.2% respectively.Phosphate fertilizer had greater reduction rate than nitrogen and potassium fertilizer.In summary,the application rate of inorganic fertilizer is generally high for vegetable production in Chongqing,but multi-harvested vegetables and shallow root vegetables have greater inorganic fertilizer reduction potential. The use of organic fertilizers instead of inorganic fertilizers reduces the input of inorganic fertilizers and increases vegetable production.

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梁涛,王帅,廖敦秀,李红梅,赵敬坤,陈媛,聂铭,陈新平,王孝忠.蔬菜化肥减量增效技术途径——以重庆为例[J].中国土壤与肥料,2021,(1):303-309.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-30
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  • 录用日期:2020-04-30
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-03-18